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To be "on the roll"
No master without Walz
From the late Middle Ages to the middle of the 18th century, the "Walz" was a prerequisite for the journeyman to begin his master craftsman examination. In detail, the respective guilds regulated the duration and the course of the journey. The purpose of hiking was also to gain lots of new experiences and later to take over my father's business.
If a traveling journeyman arrived in a foreign city, he had to introduce himself to the guild or carpentry father of the appropriate organization of his trade. If he couldn't find a job, he received a so-called allowance and traveled on. Journeyman wandered either as free travelers or "shaft-bound" (craftsmen's association).
Walz in transition
With the increase in newly founded manufactories at the end of the 18th century, more and more conflicts arose with the old craft. Hiking became less important as the growing companies were interested in using the knowledge they had conveyed for themselves. Colleges and trade schools were founded. Only in a few main and ancillary trades of the building trade continued to wander.
The number of traveling companions cannot be put into concrete figures; it was subject to constant and great fluctuations. From the beginning of the 20th century to the end of the 1920s, the number of journeyman journeys was in the four-digit range. During the world wars and the time of the National Socialist dictatorship, the number of migrants fell sharply, as many young men were drafted into the military.
At the beginning of the 1950s, interest in traditional rolling rose again, but never reached the dimensions of the 1920s. Proper travel was soon banned in the GDR; the current conditions of the state-owned enterprises made working at various jobs almost impossible.
With the growing prosperity in the economically up-and-coming FRG, the motivation to take to the streets for three years also declined, so that in the 1970s the traveling craftsmen in their traditional gothic were a rarity. The years of privation were no longer necessary.
Walz today and shafts
At the beginning of the 1980s, the desire for alternative lifestyles and the women's movement grew. Two new craftsmen's associations, so-called "Schächte", were founded. Their structures differed greatly from the old traditional shafts. And: They also admitted women.
The five largest shafts in Germany today are:
- The Righteous strangerswhich in turn are divided into two different groups of travelers; a craft that only works with metal, stone and minerals; the other only for so-called wood professions. Only men are accepted without exception.
- The Roland Brotherswho only accept "male, debt-free and unmarried carpenters, bricklayers, joiners, stonecutters, roofers, stone setters, concrete workers and wood sculptors up to the end of their 27th year of life". Another special feature here: For a period of three years and one day, travelers are not allowed to approach their home town (Bannkreis) further than 60 kilometers.
- The Foreign freedom shaft stands for the maintenance of the custom for building trade journeyman after the apprenticeship. Male construction workers are permitted who undertake to "avoid their hometown within 50 kilometers, have no debts, no children and a journeyman's certificate, as well as being unmarried and members of a trade union".
- The Free encounter shaft was founded in 1986. It is the union of traveling and local journeyman craftsmen who have completed their apprenticeship training in a traditional craft. The characteristic here is that women and men are allowed to travel together; From the farrier to the goldsmith to the confectioner, every traditional handicraft is included.
- Both Free Voigtländer Carpenters, bricklayers, roofers, stonemasons and construction joiners have been traveling for at least two years since 1910. Conditions here are: possession of a journeyman's certificate that one is single and debt-free as well as a member of the union.
In addition, the number of Free travelers both sexes. They are usually proud of their independence from the shafts, but they also hold on to the traditions very much: a circle of spells, gaps, auditions with the master and so on.
Rituals and rules
Those who go on the roll often stick to centuries-old traditions. Each shaft has its own customs and rituals. With the Roland brothers, the "new one" is picked up from home by an old master and initiated into the laws and rules of life on a wandering with a ceremony. During a two-month aspirant period, the young journeymen are "put through their paces" and only then sent on their individual path.
The custom of audition can still be found in all shafts. If a journeyman comes to a new city, he has to go to the mayor there. What is spoken there exactly and how is one of the great secrets of the shafts and is only passed on from journeyman to journeyman.
"We don't do this out of vanity, but on the one hand to protect tradition and on the other hand to protect against abuse. Otherwise one day someone will come disguised as a traveling companion, say his little saying and get a place that a 'real' craftsman should actually take ! It should remain the privilege of those who are on the street, "says Guido Stier, honorable central manager of the Rolandschacht. In the past, messages from the hiker's city of origin were also transmitted during this audition.
The spell of the home town may only be broken in all shafts in extreme emergencies - for example in the event of the death or illness of a relative. You can keep in contact with your family via the internet and mobile phone. As a rule, "the traveling journeyman has no sense of being at home, so that doesn't happen that often anyway. New impressions patter on the journeyman every day, you have to understand that," says Guido Stier .
In the handicraft hall, decisions are still made and disputes settled.
Local members of the manhole in the area meet at regular intervals with the strangers who are currently there and are working to exchange experiences and ideas. There are also psychological reasons for this. Roland's brother Guido Stier: "When you come home from the Walz, you've changed a lot. You basically need some more travel time to find your way back to your old life. That's why you join companies."
One recognizes a wandering journeyman primarily by his traditional gullet; his well affiliation to the so-called "honesty".
The craftsmanship stands for quality, reliability, trust and training security as well as for values such as hard work, persistence, devotion and loyalty within the practice of a craft. A master acquits the apprentice in front of his comrades if he has "shown himself to be honest, pious and loyal as well as godly and honor-loving". Then he gets the "honesty" attached to his lapel, which looks different depending on the shaft.
Divide and accessories
The way you dress, that's how you work. Each trade has its own specific gap. Using the example of a carpenter, here are the individual items of clothing and equipment that must always be kept in order.
The cap can be a slouch hat, a cylinder or a coke (melon) and describes its wearer as "free".
The collarless white shirt will shrub called.
You wear one over your shirt Velvet or Manchestervest, which is set with eight mother-of-pearl buttons. The buttons must be sewn in the shape of a "Z".
The Respectability is a tie-like piece of cloth and has different colors: black is worn by the righteous strangers, blue by the Roland brothers, red by the stranger freedom brothers and gray by the journeymen of the free encounter shaft. In all of them, the honesty comes with a golden needle attached to the shirt with the handicraft coat of arms of the respective shaft. The Free Voigtlanders of Germany wear a gold pin with the FVD symbol on their collarless shirt.
The jacket made of velvet or manchester is trimmed with six buttons.
The trousers Must have a stroke of 65 centimeters on the trouser leg and is made of velvet or Manchester fabric.
You wear it on your feet black shoes or boots.
The Earring with the coat of arms in the left ear marks the wandering apprentice. Its first bearer is said to have been an admirer of the Jewish King Solomon. The earring was made of pure gold; after his death the traveler could use it to pay for his funeral.
At the Guild watch chain there are coats of arms of the cities in which the journeyman worked.
The most important companion of the journeyman is Charlottenburg, a cloth about 88 by 88 centimeters in which the apprentice carries a change of clothes, toothbrush and tools. On top of the fabric, which is usually knotted into a long sausage and printed with a coat of arms, comes the Sleeping bag.
Other utensils are the Stenz, a kind of coiled walking stick, and that Hiking book. The latter documents all of the apprentices' work assignments during their years of travel and is also a kind of travel diary.
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