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The dream came true - built or bought a house in nature. For the first time with positive impressions, we are ready to accept minor inconveniences. But at some point you will understand that something is missing. When it rains or bad weather, you have to be in close contact with nature and hide in the house. You can have breakfast, lunch and dinner there. But what about gatherings with family or friends at the outdoor table? Then the first thoughts come over the terrace. Putting all possible options in your head, the question arises: How do you add a terrace to the house so that it fits seamlessly into the overall picture of the house and the landscape and is comfortable, practical and a favorite place for the Rest of the whole family.
- Design and legalization of the extension of the terrace to the house
- Choose a place for a terrace
- What shape and size to build a terrace to the house
- What materials to use to build a terrace
- To connect or not to connect a terrace to the house
- Basis for a terrace
- Extension of the terrace to the house: photos - examples
Right now, let's define the term "terrace" and its derivatives so that you can more accurately represent what will be discussed later.
terrace - An open area (flooring) on a prepared base. The adjoining terrace is on the ground floor of the house. In this case it can have a roof (closed) and can be open or partially closed, i.e. the roof covers only part of the terrace. The housing can be a wooden balustrade, slack chains, or any other structure. A fence cannot be placed on the terrace from either all or all sides.
veranda - a special case of the terrace. It is completely fenced or glazed, has a roof. In fact, the porch is another room at home, only it has no heating. It can be used as a recreation area in summer and as a winter garden in winter. Sometimes there is even a place to sleep.
veranda - a small terrace that only frames the entrance to the house. Has several steps.
balcony - A narrow terrace frames the house. Must have a fence.
Further in the article we will talk about the terrace that you are used to building in our countries for the summer rest and the arrangement of the dining area there. Most often it is a platform surrounded by a parapet with a roof next to the roof of the house. We consider the veranda just as a special case to clarify the issue of the interface between the structure and the house and the layout of the foundation.
Design and legalization of the extension of the terrace to the house
The best option would of course be a terrace in the planning phase of the house. Then it can be placed on a common foundation with the house, which is extremely important for the durability of the structure.
If "the train has already left", then it will be necessary to carry out a new project for the construction of a terrace. To do this, you need to contact the relevant architecture organizations. To create the project, it is necessary to study the soil on which it will be installed, taking into account the climatic characteristics of the regional area: when snow falls, the amount of snow cover, the depth of the freezing point of the soil, the height of the Precipitation and others. Since it is necessary to fix the terrace to the house, it will be necessary to carefully examine the condition of the foundation of the house, its wall, which the terrace will adjoin, take into account the overall design of the house and the roof.
In the project it is necessary to indicate the dimensions, the shape of the terrace, the height from the ground, the materials for the foundation and the terrace itself. All this according to calculations for the strength of the supporting structure.
If you want to build an open terrace, you don't need permits. The law does not even require a foundation for such a terrace because it is considered a temporary structure.
If you want to have an enclosed terrace or even a glazed porch, then you cannot do without permit documents, as this is a redevelopment. With the project documentation for the terrace, you need to contact the chief architect of the district. After obtaining approval and completing construction, changes will need to be made to documentation for the entire house. Without this, you won't be able to sell it and your heirs may have problems re-registering apartments.
Choose a place for a terrace
If you decide to fix a terrace on the house with your own hands, the first thing you need to decide on a place. Choosing the right location for the terrace depends not only on the aesthetic view of the whole house, but also on the comfort of the terrace, its protection from the wind and the scorching sun, and easy accessibility.
Most often a terrace is attached to this wall, where the front door is. Thus, it fulfills the functions of both the veranda and the haystack and relaxation area when space permits.
It can also be localized around the perimeter of the house, with one socket with just one wall or more, depending on the design of the house.
If you do not tie the location of the terrace to the front door, this can be arranged from the kitchen or living room and equip the exit from these rooms directly onto the terrace. So it will be convenient to take out meals with food and relax guests in the bosom of nature.
In order to hide the terrace from the view of passers-by, it is located at the back of the house, i. overlooking the garden. In spring and summer, the scent of the trees, the noise of the leaves and the "flowers" of the insects will level off and create favorable conditions for a complete break from the hustle and bustle of the city.
In the northern regions, it is better to have a terrace on the south side of the house, equipped with a roof or a canopy to protect it from the scorching sun and rain. You can also just shade it with tall trees.
In the southern regions with a hot climate, a terrace to relax from the east and even from the north side of the house in absolute shade.
An important factor in designing a patio is Rose of the Winds. This is especially true in regions with strong winds. The extension must be arranged so that the ledges of the house protect it from a gusty wind.
As you can see, the choice of location is more important than the material from which the terrace is made. As its convenience is completely dependent on the many factors listed above.
What shape and size to build a terrace to the house
Dimensions The terraces depend on several factors. The first is the amount of space that can be used for it. The page is not always so big that you don't even have to think about it. The second is what the terrace is used for. In order to reach two people, the width of the terrace should be at least 120 cm.In order to arrange the dining area, it is necessary to take into account the number of people permanently living in the house and calculate the space for the table and chairs, armchairs or benches . The table for 6 occupies 4 m2, if you add free space for hallways and furniture, you get 7.5 m2. If you are planning an additional recreation area, the space for sun beds or sofas will be charged. It is important to properly arrange the passageways so that it is convenient to move within and between the zones.
shape The terrace can be completely different: square, rectangular, round, broken, polygonal. Which of them is to be arranged depends on personal preferences and freedom. The shape will not cause any difficulties for the arrangement of an open terrace. But for closed it is necessary to provide a comfortable and functional roof. If the terrace has an unusual shape, you can use modern glass elements to arrange the roof.
What materials to use to build a terrace
When adding the terrace to the house, the price depends directly on the size of the terrace, its shape, foundation and materials. About the shape and dimensions that we have already talked about, let's now discuss the materials.
The main rule when choosing the material for the terrace is to harmonize with the overall concept of the house. It is not necessary to use the same material.
For example when Brick house, on the terrace you can offer only a few elements made of bricks: columns, Support of the roof or decorative elements. And the floor and balustrade of the terrace can be wooden.
If the Woodhouse, the terrace must be fenced in with the same material made of tree trunks or tree trunks, otherwise the overall picture will "knock out".
Although there is an exception - Glass roof and Glass fences looks neutral and next to the tree and next to a brick or stone.
Forged fences They are only suitable for buildings made of stone or brick.
The floor is best made of wood. But if you doubt the strength and ability to withstand high loads or sharp heels, then it can be covered with ceramic tiles or ceramic granite. It is also worth noting the arrangement of floor coverings made of special materials that can withstand severe frost, precipitation and frequent changes in temperature.
The frame of the terrace can be made of wooden beams, metal structures or a combination of masonry, gutters and wooden beams. The treated wood is almost always used for the roof frame. It is better to make the roof directly from the same material as the roof of the house. The exception is the glass roof - it can be equipped without looking at the material of the main building.
To connect or not to connect a terrace to the house
This question torments many and not in vain. Often there are situations when a terrace or porch is firmly attached to the house on its own foundation, and in due course cracks appear in the structure of the porch or, worse, the home. This is happening for some reason.
Under the load of the weight of the structure, the soil shrinks, the greatest intensity - immediately after the construction is completed, and over time it decreases, reaching the minimum values per year. The size and speed of shrinkage depends directly on the weight of the structure and the soil on which it stands. Shrinkage under the house (the main building) will be much greater than under the terrace. The house and terrace will eventually settle, but at different speeds and at different depths. If you firmly tie the terrace to the house, some of the weight load on the house will shift, which will lead to cracks and destruction not only of the terrace design, but also of the walls and foundation of the house.
Bright terraces on separate foundations Do not attach to the house, so as to exclude the effect of lowering these objects on each other. Expansion joints are used for a joint that does not interfere with the subsidence and movement of structures. This facilitates the possibility of mutual movement.
Closed verandasthat are used as additional space add to the house elements that allow the structure to move up to a certain point. First of all, the veranda is built on a foundation in the depth of the freezing of the ground with all the necessary pads. If there is such a possibility, it will connect to the existing foundation, but not too difficult. Forced calculations are made for the correct connection of the structures.
If the walls of the verandas are made of wood, then they are attached to the walls of the house with the help of the "spike-nut" system. On the uneven bars of the house and porch, cut out thorns and furrows, allowing the structures to be demolished in the vertical plane. At the same time, gaps do not appear.
If the walls of the porch are bricks, then they are attached to the walls of the house with special anchors or brackets so that mutual movement is possible. A year or two later, when a crack or crack appears, it's closed. It will not increase any further.
When building a full porch, it is best to equip it with the house on the same foundation. This will help avoid many problems in the future.
Basis for a terrace
The type and weight of the foundation for the terrace depends on the material from which it is planned to build a terrace. But that's not the only criterion. No less important are the properties of the soil.
So the terrace on the surface can detach itself from the main house after winter frosts. This is due to the "swelling" of the soil. It is not for nothing that builders say on every corner that the foundation must be built in the depth of the freezing point of the ground. If this advice is neglected, in winter the water in the ground under the terrace will freeze, and in spring it will begin to thaw and "lead" the terrace in an unknown direction. A whole wall can even collapse.
Therefore, rule one - whatever the basis - be columnar or ribbon The depth should be below the freezing point of the soil.
For bright wooden terrace, yes in principle any terrace, you can build a columnar foundation. To do this, trenches are dug, in which cushion materials are layered in layers: crushed stone, sand, gravel. Then the formwork is poured from above for concrete. This is what supporting pillars are made of concrete. Depending on the characteristics of the soil, supporting pillars can be made of brick on some of them.
Glazed verandas It is desirable to build on tape foundations. If it is planned to connect it to the house, then first the foundation of the house is excavated, then the reinforcement is put together to it and put together into a new foundation, which, so to speak, should be a continuation of the main foundation. The width should be the same as the width of the house wall. It is extremely important to make the calculations correctly, since the floor immediately "sits" next to the house, and a little further from it - no. And the properties that they have are different, and so is the intensity of future shrinkage. It is better to entrust such calculations to professionals.
Even if you came up with the idea of simply equipping the terrace on a concrete slab, it cannot be placed directly on the grass either. Make sure the top layer of soil underneath is removed and cover it with material that allows water to pass through, e.g. B. Rubble. The plate itself should be reinforced from above and below so that it can withstand uneven loads.
In conclusion, I want to note: do not neglect the calculations for the construction of the terrace, in particular - the foundation. If you want the design to last a long time and not deform over time, entrust the project to the architect and choose materials that take into account the climatic conditions in your area.
Extension of the terrace to the house: photos - examples
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