How old is Pastor Abel Damina

Motor oil: The great ADAC guide

Engine oil protects the engine from wear. The most important information from oil changes to mixing and viscosity to SAE classes, from ACEA specifications to oil dilution and correct measurement.

Why do cars need engine oil?
Can you mix motor oils?
Which engine oil is the right one?
Why do you have to change engine oil?
Oil change: can you do it yourself?
Mineral oil or synthetic oil - which is better?
What is longlife oil?
Can you save money with low-viscosity oil?
What happens if you pour too much oil into the engine?
When and why does the oil filter have to be changed?
Why do gasoline and diesel cars with particle filters need a special engine oil?
Oil level - how to measure correctly
Rising oil level due to oil dilution
What does engine oil viscosity mean?
What are the SAE viscosity grades?
What is the ACEA Specification?
What is the API classification?
How long can you store engine oil?

Why do cars need engine oil?

Engine oil prevents a car's engine from being damaged while it is in motion. It lubricates the moving parts in the engine - for example the pistons and thus reduce mechanical friction. It also cools the parts that get hot while driving and which the coolant cannot reach, protects against corrosion and cleans the engine of ash, soot and metallic abrasion.

Can you mix motor oils?

Oils for different engine concepts (e.g. petrol or diesel) should in principle due to the different requirement profiles not mixed become. For the common four-stroke petrol and diesel engines, oils from the two-stroke range (scooters, lawn mowers) are taboo.

Motor oils for that same engine concept on the other hand, they can basically Mix, also synthetic with mineral. However, the performance characteristics prescribed by the vehicle manufacturers must always be observed. If an oil with a lower performance than specified is added to an engine, this can lead to damage. Refilling higher-quality oil, on the other hand, is generally problem-free.

Which engine oil is the right one?

Different engines need different engine oils. This applies to gasoline and diesel engines, but also to different engine variants. The Oils will be accurate to the individual requirements of the respective manufacturer Voted.

That is why there are many different specifications and corresponding approvals: For example BMW Longlife-04, VW 507.00 or Mercedes-Benz 228.51. Only a few vehicle manufacturers prescribe general oil qualities according to ACEA (European Vehicle Manufacturers Association) or API (American Oil Institute).

Information on the prescribed engine oil classification can be found in theoperation manual or in the service booklet - and can also be found on the engine oil canister. You should adhere to these guidelines. Unless,the manufacturer's guarantee is at risk.

Why do you have to change engine oil?

Motor oils wear out and must thereforechanged regularly become. Reasons for the wear and tear are the natural oil aging, the degradation of the additives and the viscosity index improvers as well as thepollution due to combustion residues such as soot, sulfur oxides and water, dust from the atmosphere and mechanical abrasion. Filtering or topping up with fresh engine oil is not enough.

In the case of gasoline engines, which mostly drive short distances, it can also lead to aThinning of the engine oil come from unburned gasoline components. This lowers the viscosity and reduces the lubricity of the engine oil. Oil dilution can also occur in diesel engines with particle filters.

Oil change: can you do it yourself?

From changing the oil on your ownexperts advise against. In modern cars, the oil drain plugs can often only be opened with special tools, and the proper disposal of the oil is also time-consuming. In addition, the drain plug is hardly accessible without a lifting platform or access ramp - and the trip to a self-help workshop takes a lot of time.

Mineral oil or synthetic oil - which is better?

Mineral oils can be obtained from crude oil by distilling and refining and consist of many different hydrocarbon molecules. During the manufacturing process, the unusable components of the crude oil are sorted out. This process is relatively simple and comparatively inexpensive.

Synthetically produced motor oil is obtained from crude oil or natural gas. Here, however, the components are not sorted out, but in onechemical process purposefully assembled in such a way that the desired product is created. In this way, manufacturers can give the oil special properties - for example, particularly good lubricity at extremely low or high temperatures.

What is longlife oil?

Longlife oil consists of high quality base oils and special additives. They are usually classified according to SAE 0 W or SAE 5 W and morethin. So that they can lubricate the engine parts well despite their thin fluid, they are optimized with special additives. Longlife oil is intended for vehicles with a longlife service; i.e. for cars with a long oil change interval specified by the manufacturer. In principle, only the oil quality specified by the vehicle manufacturer may be used on these cars - even when refilling. Since longlife oils are not available from every dealer, you should always have a liter of the corresponding oil with you to refill.

Can you save money with low-viscosity oil?

Low-viscosity oils, including the Longlife oils are intended to reduce the energy loss in the event of mechanical friction in the motor. In fact, they can help drivers save fuel, depending on the outside temperature, operating conditions and engine type: at best, four to six percent over a short distance. On motorways as well as city and country journeys, consumption can be up to four percent lower on average.

However, low-viscosity oil is usually more expensive than most standard products. Therefore, the financial savings potential should be a few euros a year. In addition, the oil should only be used if the car manufacturer specifies or allows it for the vehicle in question.

What happens if you pour too much oil into the engine?

If there is too much engine oil in the oil pan, bubbles can form in it. In the worst case, it comes to the diesel engineOil puller: The oil is sucked into the engine and burned, the engine stalls. The result is engine damage. If you have refilled too much oil, there are two possibilities: If the max display on the dipstick is only just exceeded, driving to the nearest workshop should not be a problem. The situation is different if significantly more oil than prescribed has been poured in: Then the car is better to stop. An ADAC breakdown assistant can help.

When and why does the oil filter have to be changed?

The Oil filter has the task of removing the engine oil from Metal abrasion, dust and combustion residues to be cleaned before it reaches the lubrication points. For this purpose, the engine oil is sucked in from the oil sump of the oil pan by the oil pump while the engine is running and pressed through the oil filter with pressure. From there, the oil is pumped to the engine's lubrication points.

After prolonged use, the filter becomes more and more clogged with these particles. If it is not changed in time, the oil can no longer flow through the filter and be cleaned there. At clogged filter A bypass valve then opens and lets as much oil through as necessary - and this oil now flows with all the harmful particles uncleaned in the engine.

Why do gasoline and diesel cars with particle filters need a special engine oil?

in the Particle filter only soot can be eliminated, but not the combustion residues from the engine that get into the filter. Sooner or later, these will bother him.

As a solution there is two possibilities: Either the filter is dimensioned large enough so that it can absorb the oil ash over a certain mileage. Or you can use an engine oil that burns as ash-free as possible.

The Sulphate ash used. An oil formulation with a reduced ash content is characterized by special additives that contain less sulfur and phosphorus. These oils are known as Low SAPS or low ash engine oils.

The requirements for these engine oils are in the ACEA specifications C1 to C5 (C = passenger car gasoline and diesel engines with new exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, e.g. particulate filters. Some manufacturers have extended their specifications accordingly, e.g. VW 507.00. You can find detailed information on this in the PDF "Engine oil - classifications and specifications" (see further down).

Oil level - how to measure correctly

An incorrect oil level can damage the engine. So he should be regular with a warm engine to be checked. Wait about two minutes after stopping the engine. During this time, the oil from the engine has run into the oil pan. Only then pull out the dipstick, clean it with a cloth and then reinsert it as far as it will go. Then pull it out again and read the level.

Is the oil between the "Min" and "Max" markings, everything is okay. Oil must be topped up under "Min", and it is best to have a workshop drain it over "Max". One reason for the oil level being too high can be oil dilution.

Rising oil level due to oil dilution

If the oil level rises, it is usually due to oil dilution. This phenomenon occurs in diesel cars that are mainly driven over short distances. The cause: Dust and soot collect in the particle filter. It has to be burned down again and again so that the filter does not clog.

Because the required temperature of up to 700 degrees Celsius cannot be reached on short journeys, additional fuel is injected into the cylinder, i.e. the combustion chamber. However, it does not always burn completely and then mixes with the engine oil. The result: the oil level rises. However, diluted oil does not lubricate as well. The wear in the engine increases and with it the risk of damage.

You should therefore check the oil level regularly - especially in diesel cars on short journeys - and change the engine oil if necessary.

What does engine oil viscosity mean?

With viscosity, the Viscosity of liquids and gases. Water, for example, has a low viscosity: it is thin and therefore very fluid. At a temperature of 20 degrees it has a viscosity value of 1.

The colder a liquid is, the more viscous it becomes, the warmer, the thinner. This is particularly important with engine oils: after all, engine oil must too during a cold start Lubricate all parts in the engine very quickly in winter. But if it becomes too viscous in the cold, it cannot be pumped into the engine quickly enough. Engine damage would be the result.

On the other hand, motor oil is allowed at high temperatures - So when the engine is running at full speed - don't get too thin. Because then it loses its lubricity. This leads to higher friction in the engine, even higher temperatures and ultimately also to engine damage.

The viscosity of engine oil is determined by the SAE viscosity grades specified, e.g. SAE 5W-20, SAE 20W-50 or SAE 15W-40. You can find out which SAE your vehicle requires in the operating instructions.

What are the SAE viscosity grades?

SAE is the abbreviation for Society of Automotive Engineers. This organization sets various technical standards for the automotive industry. This includes the SAE viscosity classes. This value is indicated with two numbers on engine oil canisters: e.g. SAE 10W-40.

The number before the W describes the flow properties of engine oil in cold weather. The smaller the number, the better the engine oil can flow in the cold, and correspondingly faster it reaches the important lubrication points in the engine. The number after the W characterizes the flow properties of the engine oil when it is hot. The higher this value, the better the lubricity of the engine oil is retained when the engine is hot.

Today's Multigrade oils contain viscosity improvers. They ensure that the oil retains its lubricity at both high and low temperatures.

Basically: When buying engine oil, always choose the oil that meets the specifications of the manufacturer of your car.

What is the ACEA Specification?

The ACEA (Association des Constructeurs Européens d’Automobiles) organizes 15 car, truck and bus manufacturers in Europe or in Europe - including BMW, Daimler, Fiat Chrysler, Renault, the Volkswagen Group, Volvo, Toyota and Honda. The ACEA is developing the one named after itMotor oil specification for European vehicles.

In the ACEA classification, the vehicle types for which the respective engine oil is intended are marked with letters: A stands for car gasoline engines, B for diesel engines in cars, vans and small transporters, C for car gasoline and diesel engines with new exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, and E for truck diesel engines.

Motor oils for cars are labeled in combination for gasoline and diesel engines: e.g. ACEA A3 / B4. The number indicates the differences in performance between the various engine oils. An oil according to ACEA A3 / B3 fulfills higher requirements than an A1 / B1 engine oil.

What is the API classification?

Both the API classification and the MIL-L specification (American military specification) are used in the USA as a quality benchmark for engine oil. Both are mainly tailored to the requirements of American engines and the driving conditions there.

The first letter refers to the engine type: S (Service Station) stands for Otto engines. C (Commercial) applies to commercial vehicle diesel engines. Passenger car diesel engines are not classified separately via the API. The differences in performance between different engine oils can be seen on the second letter read off. A stands for engine oil without additives. Today it is only used for classic cars. The letter N indicates the highest power class currently available for gasoline engines.

For more information on engine oil classifications and specifications, see here.

How long can you store engine oil?

Engine oil can be stored for a relatively long time in the sealed original container. However, the manufacturers recommend it at mostthree to a maximum of five years to keep. After that, components of the chemical additives dissolved in the oil can precipitate, the additives are then no longer dissolved, but form small lumps.

In addition, every container "breathes" due to changing ambient temperatures, So it pulls in outside air including moisture. This also reduces the performance of the engine oil due to chemical-physical reactions with the additives.

In addition, the technical progress in engine development requires oils with ever higher performance. Oil that has been stored for too long no longer meets these requirements. It should be in opened containers half a year at most be kept.

Contact

How did you like the article?