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Fischer Weltgeschichte, Vol. 22, South and Central America I, The Indian Cultures of Old America And Colonial Rule

South and Central America I The Indian cultures of old America Colonial rule Edited and authored by Richard Konetzke

and

the

Spanish-Portuguese

This volume is the first of two volumes on South and Central America in the context of Fischer's world history. It deals with the Indian cultures of ancient America and the Spanish-Portuguese colonial rule in chronological order. In addition to the political events, the economic and social conditions in the Ibero-American colonies and the spiritual and religious foundations of the Conquista are presented and described as effective forces in the course of history. Prof. Richard Konetzke, the author of this volume, was Director of the Iberian and Latin American Department of the History Department of the University of Cologne. His presentation, which is based on decades of research, shows the incorporation of the ancient American empires of the Incas and Aztecs into the empire of the Spanish and Portuguese crowns. The individual chapters describe the Indians and their cultures, the legal titles of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial foundations, the settlement policy and the forms of settlement of the conquistadors, the population history of Latin America, the development of the state organization, the Spanish-Portuguese indigenous policy, the position of the Catholic Church and its missionaries , the economic development of the colonial empires and the cultural currents of the time. The volume is self-contained and equipped with illustrations, map sketches and a bibliography. A register of persons and subjects makes it easier for the reader to find their way around. The history of South and Central America finds its chronological continuation up to the present in volume 23 of the Fischer Weltgeschichte. The author of this volume Richard Konetzke

(18971980); 1921 Doctorate phil .; 1925 studies in Spanish archives on the history of enlightened absolutism in Spain; after several years as a teacher in Berlin, commissioned in 1941 with research on the history of Spanish colonization in America; 194452 renewed archival studies in Spain, especially in the Indian archives of Seville; after a stay as a research associate at Duke University in Durham (USA) from 1954 lecturer at the University of Cologne; from 1961 until his retirement in 1965 a. o. Professor of Iberian and Latin American History and Director of the Iberian and Latin American Department of the History Department of the University of Cologne. 1963 Professor h. c. of the University of Crdoba Argentina. In 1939 he published the Basic History of the Spanish and Portuguese People; In 1953, 1958 and 1962 he published the three-volume Coleccin de Documentos para la Historia de la Formacin Social de Hispano-America. He is represented with numerous contributions in all important German and international specialist bodies. He was co-editor of Latin American Research and since 1964 editor of the yearbook on the history of the state, economy and society of Latin America. Foreword The presentation in a short volume of an event as extensive in terms of space and time as the colonization of the Spaniards and Portuguese in America was, confronts the author with considerable difficulties. The processes were very different from region to region, and any general statement is in danger of over-simplifying things. The period of the story to be treated ranges from the Renaissance to the French Revolution, and the changes that occurred in Europe also changed colonial life in the New World, so that the historical reality at the end of the colonial period shows a different picture than that of the early days. In addition, the presentation of Latin American history can generally require very little knowledge from European readers and must include much more elementary facts and data than is necessary when dealing with European national histories. The colonial history of Latin America is in some respects still uncharted territory for research, even if the publications available in this area have already become almost unmistakable. The repetitions of opinions, which are still common today and which have long been corrected or refuted by recent research, show how slowly the advances in science are being incorporated into the general consciousness of history. The selection of the things to be represented was guided by the effort to bring essential aspects of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial rule in America to the view and a one-sided view and one

avoid monocausal explanation. The aim was not to write the isolated history of a distant, exotic world, but to convey an idea of ​​how universal historical problems found their special effect in the shaping of a new history of America, which begins with the European colonizations. The colonial history of Latin America is only a topic of general human history and cannot be scientifically dismissed as a peculiarity or aberration, as a colonialism to be condemned. Due to the meeting of such different races and cultures and the effects of such different geographical environments, the development of Latin America offers a wide field for extremely instructive observations of historical and social processes in general. Lucien Febvre felt that the Latin American world addresses historians with particular urgency and calls for them to be occupied with: Comment, si lon est historien vraiment et profondment-comment, si lon a lHistoire dans le sang et dans la peau, comment ne pas frmir dappetit et denvie devant cette Amrique si varie, si offer en apparence, si replie en ralit: au total si irritante pour le spectateur intelligent? The representation of this volume is the result of decades of preoccupation with the subject. It is based primarily on several years of uninterrupted archival research in Spain, especially in the Indian archives of Seville, and was further supported by my academic work at Duke University in Durham N.C. Since 1954 the subjects of this book have been the subject of my teaching and research at the University of Cologne. This overview of the colonial history of Central and South America could not have been prepared without the many recent researches being available in books and essays, a selection of which are listed in the bibliographical notes. My special thanks go to your authors, with whom I also have personal contact and exchange of ideas. I would like to thank my assistant Dr. Gnter Kahle and my student cand. Phil. For reading the corrections and other help with printing. Johann Hellwege. Richard Konetzke 1. The American Indians; their cultures and their behavior towards the white conquerors The geographical position and the surface structure of the American continent have decisively determined the development of the peoples and cultures on this part of the world1. America stretches north-east from latitude 72 degrees north to latitude 56 degrees south, and is the longest continent while being its largest, stretching approximately 14,000 km

Width is between 4000 and 5000 km and its narrowest point, the Isthmus of Panama, reaches only 46 km. The areas which produced the Indian civilizations and which were mainly conquered and colonized by the Spaniards and Portuguese occupy the central parts of this north-eastern extension of the country, the areas between the northern and southern tropics. So you belong to the tropical zone. The tropical climate is, however, mitigated or canceled out by the high mountains of the Andes, which stretch along the American west coast and rise above the snow line. America is also an isolated continent. The shortest connection with Europe is in the Northern Arctic Circle, and the most northerly shipping probably brought the Vikings from Europe via Iceland and Greenland to Labrador thanks to the favorable wind and current conditions, but was not suitable for establishing contact between the Old and New World. America and Asia meet high in the north-west on the Bering Strait. At the time of the last glaciation, about 25,000 years ago, the sinking of the sea had created a solid connection between the two continents, and the first people came to America via this land bridge. There will have been repeated immigrations over long periods of time, and later there will also have been replenishments at sea, past the Aluts. It is again significant that the wind currents favor the journey from the Asian coast to North America, but hinder the reverse route to the outside. It is believed that Polynesians came to America on their ships across the Pacific and settled there, but Peruvian coastal dwellers did not reach the Polynesian islands, as Thor Heyerdahl's thesis, now rejected, claimed. The natives of America were unable to establish contact with the Euro-Asian cultures on their own. Their almost complete isolation has impaired and hindered the development of American high cultures2. The main thing is that the Indians belong to a Caucasian-Mongolian race. There are also many characteristics of the European human type. The Spaniards observed how in some areas the natives could be mistaken for Europeans because of their facial structure and white skin. They were also surprised to find that there were no Negroes in the American tropics. This deviation from the Negro population type certainly facilitated the mixing of Indians and Whites. The Indians are not a single racial type. The diversity of the waves of immigration, but also the isolation of the population in a wide and impassable area, explain the differences in the external appearance of the American natives. The impression of diversity is reinforced by the linguistic and cultural fragmentation of ancient America. You have 125 independent

Identified language families in America spanning hundreds of individual languages ​​and dialects. The civilizations that developed on this continent usually remained separate from one another, or their mutual intercourse and exchange was minimal. Their lack of alignment can also be explained by the strong reluctance of the Indians against innovations. In some landscapes there was the rise of civilizations, and in other remote areas people lived in the most primitive savagery. At the time of the European discoveries there was neither Indian man nor a general Indian culture. But ancient America was not a secluded world that lived in an idyllic peace. The Europeans who discovered and colonized in America encountered opposites, enmities and fights between tribes or peoples of different living conditions and different cultural heights3. War was the chief occupation of many indigenous tribes, and the fighting was fought in the most gruesome manner, sometimes to the point of extermination of an enemy tribe. The great empires of ancient America were founded by armed conquests and held together by despotic rulers. The economy of the Indians of ancient America was at various stages of development in the Age of Discovery. In large areas the populations still lived at the level of gatherers, hunters and fishermen. As slaughterable pets, the Indians knew almost only the turkey, the duck, the guinea pig and one breed of dog. In some areas, hunting and fishing provided protein-rich food, but meat consumption was not common. The lack of protein was made good by adding insects, frogs, snakes and similar animals to the diet. Since there was also a shortage of wheat, the diet in America meant a great change for the European conquerors and immigrants4. Plant culture developed in different areas. Maize was mainly cultivated on the highlands of the Cordilleras, and on the west Indian islands and in the Orinoco, Amazon and La Plata areas the culture of cassava, a tuberous plant, provided the most important food. It is an agriculture that requires less labor and labor than the cultivation of grain. It is calculated that the corn farmers only need to spend 60 to 70 working days a year in order to find a living. They are civilizations of mue. The Indian civilizations developed through the soil cultivation. Agriculture became more diverse. The number of cultivated crops increased considerably. Artificial irrigation and fertilization increased agricultural production. Residential and temple towns were added to the rural settlements. One has the development of urban culture in America with the advent of irrigation systems for more intensive agriculture in

Connected. The commercial activities took a great boom. Ornate ceramics and precious fabrics demonstrated excellent craftsmanship. Gold, silver and copper were made into jewelry, but weapons and tools were mostly made of stone or wood. The use of bronze also occurred in individual places5. The processing of the iron remained unknown. In the technical field, the Indians were mostly still at the level of the Stone Age. Markets displayed the abundance of consumer goods and luxury goods. Long-distance trade distributed the products over a wide area. The structure of the state and social order corresponded to the various cultural levels. There was as yet no state organization for primitive gatherers, hunters and fishermen, and the community did not go beyond the family. In other cases the families were already united in tribal alliances, and it was a further step forward when individual tribes united in solid alliances. At the head of the small or larger Indian communities were chiefs (caciques). In general, at the time of the Spanish-Portuguese discoveries, chieftainship had become hereditary. The tribal chiefs could also be elected and deposed by the people's assembly. In addition to such ruling associations based on gender communities, real states had also emerged that claimed rule over an area and enforced it by force and administrative means. Ultimately, the two great empires of the Aztecs and the Incas emerged through military expansion. As supreme war leaders, the rulers of these empires gained absolute authority and ruled as despots. In the larger political associations, the equality of all family members and tribal comrades had been replaced by a class structure of society. Military conquest and superposition over a subjugated population favored the development of a hierarchical order of the social classes. A warrior nobility rose above the public domain farmers, craftsmen and traders. Society in the empires of the Aztecs and Incas was particularly differentiated. Below the public domain were the slaves who were acquired as prisoners of war or by robbery and purchase or who were punished for various offenses. Between the public free and slaves there were still people who were personally free, but tied to their service. The world of religions was varied among the various tribes and peoples of America. Most primitive people believed in a supreme being and worshiped the gods of the stars, and the deities were represented in idols. Ancestors also enjoyed divine veneration. Above all, the religious life of the primitive peoples was determined by the belief in demons and spirits. Magical powers were added to various animal species. At the center of religious life were the

Medicine men or shamans who put themselves into a trance state in order to connect with the supernatural world. The religions of the advanced civilizations knew a great variety of deities6. The gods of subjugated peoples were accepted into the cult. New forms of god were always invented for certain human concerns. This particularly strong form of polytheism was felt by the Christian Spaniards to be extremely repugnant and the elimination of polytheism was taken as a natural obligation. These religions appeared completely repulsive to them when they got to know the offering of human sacrifices, which reached gruesome proportions among the Aztecs, but were also known in the Inca Empire. The scattering of the Indian populations over a wide, rugged continent, the unfamiliarity with carts and draft animals for making land connections, and the lack of overseas traffic have made it extremely difficult to assimilate American cultures. It has become decisive for the Spanish and Portuguese colonization that the Europeans were not confronted with a politically and culturally uniform or similar America. The Spaniards and Portuguese only gradually became aware of the manifold differences in the political, economic, and cultural development of America in the course of their discoveries and conquests. Their occupation and settlement of the overseas territories proceeded as a constant experimentation in what was, for them, a truly New World. It was not just a matter of collecting observations and experiences, but of revising them in an environment that was constantly changing. A few examples show how the ideas of the explorers and conquerors of the peoples and cultures of America expanded and changed, and how the behavior of the natives developed towards the invasion of Europe, which pulled them out of their previous isolation. The Spaniards had their first contact with American natives on the islands of the Caribbean Sea. They met the Taino in the Greater Antilles, who belonged to the Aruak or Arawak family and who had taken possession of the West Indies from the South American mainland. The Taino had already been expelled from the Lesser Antilles by the Caniba, who the Spaniards called the Caribs and cannibals, before the European discovery. The body and facial features of the Taino made a pleasant impression on the Europeans. Columbus describes them as well-built, pretty people and is surprised to find that they have no frizzy hair and no black skin color.They are fairly light-skinned and, he says, are almost as white as the people in Spain if they walked dressed and did not expose their bodies to the sun and air8. He said he had not found any migratory monsters that many suspected to be in those areas.

Columbus already observed essential differences between the two groups of races. The Taino were, in his opinion, a peaceful species. He praised the goodness and decency of these natives. The Taino lived at the level of a primitive planter culture, but already showed signs of developing a high culture. The cultivation of cotton provided them with the raw material for the manufacture of fabrics; They worked the gold into jewelry and made sculptures out of stone and wood. They approached the strangers, who they believed had come from heaven, without suspicion and willingly exchanged what they owned for little things. Columbus thought that one had never seen people of such good heart and generosity, nor so fearful, 9 and seemed to have found the noble savage in those natives. He wrote to the Catholic Kings: They are people of love and without greed ... I believe that in the world there is no better people, nor better country; They love their loved ones as they do themselves, they speak the loveliest language in the world and are gentle and always laughing10. The Caribs, on the other hand, were known as a cruel warrior people. They went on raids on the islands inhabited by the Taino, killed the men and abducted the women. The Taino lived in constant fear of the overcrowding of the Caribs and could therefore see their protectors in the white. They described their Caribbean enemies as beings with the face and teeth of dogs and referred to them as cannibals. The actual or even alleged cannibalism of the so-called Caribs, whose settlement area was not exactly known, should justify it if the Spanish law allowed the inhabitants of those islands to be attacked and abducted as slaves. The Caribs, who were among the largest and most powerful people of the Indian race, turned out to be bitter enemies of the European conquest. Taino and Caribs did not represent a political power towards the European invaders, as their state organization had barely got beyond village communities and small princes. Later uprisings by individual chiefs were brutally suppressed by the Spaniards11. The Spanish had similar experiences when they came into contact with the natives of the Venezuelan mainland coast. Here, too, they distinguished between wild, warlike Indians, who were Caribs and lived in the coastal zone between Pariah and Borburata, and the peaceful and friendly Indians of the coastal cordillera, to which the caiquetos belonged and who lived on a higher level of culture. When they landed on the Brazilian coast, the Portuguese also encountered primitive populations who lived at the Neolithic cultural level. The East Brazilian peoples led a wild life and knew neither weaving and pottery, nor the processing of metals. The men

were mainly hunters, while the women gathered plants and found the transition to primitive agriculture. Her adornment was painting the body and sticking it with feathers. Cannibalism and headhunting were common customs. Best known among the indigenous tribes of eastern Brazil are the Tup, Botocuds, and Borror. The Indians mainly fed on the tubers of cassava. The ship's secretary Pedro Paz de Caminha, who was present when Cabral first landed in Brazil, wrote with astonishment: Nevertheless, they are stronger and better nourished than we are with all the wheat and vegetables we eat, and was no less surprised to discover that they knew nothing of iron. They cut their wood with wedge-shaped stones that were put into a wooden shaft and fastened very well so that they were resistant.12 Columbus had regarded the natives he had discovered as the wild population of the coast and on the Asian mainland, which he was close to believed the encounter with peoples of high culture awaited. When he landed on the Central American mainland on his fourth voyage at Cape Honduras, without being aware of it, and found evidence of great commercial skill among the natives, he saw in it evidence that he was close to the kingdom of the Grokhan. In reality he had come into contact with Mayan communities. The Spaniards began to get to know an American high culture in the Maya settlement area. In 1517 the participants of the expedition of Fernndez de Crdoba landed on the coast of Yucatan. The Mayas of this area entertained the foreign guests hospitably, but forced them the next day to retreat to their ships after losing many battles. The Europeans faced an organized power on the American mainland. The area of ​​the Maya culture included Guatemala, parts of Chiapas and Tabasco, Yucatan and Honduras to the west. Since the 9th century, the Yucatan peninsula had become the main settlement area of ​​the Maya. The Mayan Empire of the League of Mayapan had broken up into a number of principalities by the mid-15th century. This political decline of Mayan rule made it easier for the Spaniards to conquer the Yucatan, which dragged on from 1527 to 1546 as a result of the conquest of Mexico by Hernn Corts because of the fierce resistance of the Maya. The Spaniards also encountered individual independent tribal states on the Guatemalan highlands. While the natives of the West Indies lived in rural settlements, urban cultures had developed on the mainland. The Spaniards were astonished to see populous cities in Yucatan with stone houses, tall temples and cobbled streets. The former places of worship of the Maya had turned into places of residence and fortified rulers' residences. The city is a crucial factor for that

Education of the advanced civilizations in ancient America. The excess cultivation of food crops, especially maize, allowed the urban population to pursue various handicrafts, trade and other non-food professions. At the time of the European discovery, there was a differentiated, hierarchically ordered society in the Mayan cities, the uppermost level of which was formed by a nobility and the priesthood, and the lowest level of which was taken by the slaves, who had become unfree and sellable through captivity and crime. The use of metal was not yet known in this urban culture either. Tools and weapons were made of stone and wood. The cities of the Maya culture were the centers of an extensive long-distance trade. The Maya developed an important spiritual culture and have therefore been called the Greeks of America. They had a picture script, but the majority of the hieroglyphs have not yet been interpreted and their connection to a conceptual context has not been deciphered. They were familiar with the spelling of numbers up to 19 in the form of dots and lines and used the zero and the superposition of the characters according to the system of twenty. This arithmetic and astronomical observations with the naked eye were used by the Maya to set up their calendars and to calculate the time. Your priests calculated the astronomical year to be 365.2420 days, so they came closer to today's calculation of 365.2422 days than the Gregorian calendar with 365.2425 days. The artistic talent of the Maya is particularly evident in the stone relief and in the full sculpture as well as in the decorated and painted ceramics. The Maya religion knew a multitude of main and special deities, whose inclination and help was sought to be secured through prayers, mortifications and dances, but also through the offering of human sacrifices. The priesthood gained a great influence on people's lives, particularly through the art of divination they gave. High cultures had also developed in the Aztec Empire, which the Spaniards conquered under the leadership of Hernn Corts between 1519 and 1521. The rise of a great Aztec power did not go back a century at that time. It was only under their ruler Itzcoatl (14281446) that the Aztecs, whose capital Tenochtitlan was Mexico, freed themselves from the rule of the Tepanecs and established a triple alliance with the neighboring city-states of Texcoco and Tlacopan. Under Moctezuma I (14401469) the Aztecs gained leadership in this union of cities and expanded their sphere of influence to the coasts of the Pacific and Atlantic. The following rulers continued the conquests, and under Moctezuma II, who ruled since 1502, the Aztecs' political entry area reached into the Mayalnders in the south, while only parts of today's Michoacn were subdued to the north. At the moment of the Spanish invasion, the Aztec existed

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Great from 38 city provinces, which were obliged to pay tribute, but retained their administrative independence. But this empire was not a self-contained state structure. Individual city-states, such as Tlaxcala, still maintained their political independence within the Aztec sphere of influence. In addition, the federal structure of this empire was not yet completely removed by the hegemony of the Aztecs. The military expansion of Mexico was only on the way to the establishment of a fixed system of rule. The institutionalization of the ruling power was advancing. The state administration was already centralized and largely bureaucratised. The tribal organization, of which there were more than 700 in 1521, was almost entirely lost. The territorial principle prevailed over the gentile order. The Aztec society was also organized according to class. The nobility consisted of members of the old tribal aristocracy and of new nobles who had been ennobled for special merits, especially on the battlefield. Priests and high officials also received the privileges of the nobility. However, there was a tendency towards the formation of a subsequent hereditary class of nobility. The nobles had numerous privileges. They were preferred when filling government offices; they did not pay tributes, they were allowed to own private estates, were subject to their own courts, they were restricted to wearing certain items of clothing and jewelry, and their sons were educated in their own temple schools. A privileged position in Mexican society was also held by the merchants who carried out long-distance trade in luxury goods and who served the ruler of Mexico as spies on their trade trips. There was also the social class, the artisans who were detached from agricultural activity, who required specific training and specialist knowledge in their occupations, and who worked essentially for the luxury needs of the ruling class. The craft trade was passed on from father to son. The common people who tilled the land were given lands by families by the communities, the calpullis, which did not become private property but would revert to the community if the family died out. New farmland was found through the colonization of conquered areas and the creation of more chinampas, floating gardens that were mud-covered flecks and anchored in the Lake of Mexico. In addition to these farmers, who also ran the local trade and carried out simple handicrafts, there were tenants who ran private property for a rent, and farm workers, the mayeques, who tended the lands of the noble lords, were tied to the clod and with the land and Land in the possession of the heirs. Finally, slavery was also widespread in ancient Mexico. One could become a slave through robbery or captivity and as punishment for various offenses or as a

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Sumiger debtors sink to this unfree position, but the father could also sell his son as a slave. However, the slaves were not entirely without rights with the Aztecs. They were allowed to have their own property and could not be sold or even killed by their owners without their consent or without good reason. The children of the slaves were set free. The slaves found employment in particular for porter services and household chores. The differentiation of the social structure was closely related to the economic changes. The productivity of the fertile soil in Mexico was high. Even with the most primitive way of growing maize in the Milpa system, where the field was put into work after slash-and-burn, high yields resulted. It has been calculated that under this system a family of five people who worked a field of four to five hectares produced well over twice what they needed for a living in 190 days. But now there was still more intensive farming. The periodically flooded banks of the rivers were carefully used for cultivation, as the sludge left behind ensured high harvests. There was also an extensive network of irrigation systems, which in turn could only be created by a well-developed state organization. The excess production in agricultural cultivation allowed many people to be released for commercial activities and to settle in the cities. Even in the Aztec empire, almost all of the utensils were made of wood or stone, only the craftsmen's chasing tools were made of copper. The precious metals were processed into pieces of jewelry. The artistic featherwork adorned with precious stones represented a special technique. The ceramics had produced particularly valuable products in some areas. The urban architecture is characterized by the splendid aristocratic stone palaces, which were one-piece and windowless, with the rooms grouped around an inner courtyard. Magnificent gardens surrounded the palaces. The houses of the common people were built of burnt mud bricks. The most imposing structures were the huge temple pyramids. The main pyramid of the city of Mexico reached a height of 30 m on a ground plan of 100x80 m. Characteristic buildings are also the ball playgrounds. The art of stone relief and sculpture was also developed in ancient Mexico. Some preserved frescoes testify to the painting. The Aztec religion also knows numerous gods. The human sacrifices offered to the gods reached gruesome proportions by the Aztecs, after all, at the consecration of the main temple in Mexico City, according to the slightest estimate, 20,000 people were slaughtered by cutting out their hearts in four days. The horror and loathing of this terrible custom of offering the bleeding heart of a person and even a child to God as food have the chasm and enmity

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immensely deepened between Spaniards and Mexicans. Aztec god myths were to have a decisive influence on the fate of Mexico. The warlike people of the Aztecs felt paralyzed by their belief in god in their fighting spirit against the European invaders. It saw its world threatened by calamity and destined for doom. Fear filled the minds of the prophesied return of the priest-king Quetzalcoatl, who was to appear in the east and put an end to the regiment of the bloody gods. Moctezuma believed that the Spaniards were the prophesied new masters from the east and that he had to cede them to rule. The internal conditions of the Aztec empire explain it, since the Spaniards were able to subdue this empire with the help of Mexican peoples. The Totonacs in the Veracruz area, suffering from the will of the Aztec tax collectors, welcomed the soldiers of Hernn Cort as their liberators. The residents of the city-state of Tlaxcala proved themselves to be the most loyal and bravest allies of the Spanish conquistadors and were given special freedoms and privileges over the rest of the native population under Spanish rule. The otomian peoples also welcomed the Spaniards peacefully and provided them with food. The last heroic struggle of the inhabitants of the capital Mexico could not avert the fate of foreign rule14. Higher cultures developed in the northern Andean region, in the area of ​​the three Andean chains of Colombia. There was the country of origin of the Chibcha, which extended south into central Ecuador and north over the isthmus from Panama to Nicaragua. At the time of the Spanish discovery, the Caucatal and the Bogot highlands stood out as cultural landscapes. Well-established states and a class hierarchy had developed here. The chiefs (caciques / caciques) as supreme war leaders had made themselves despotic rulers who appeared in possession of supernatural powers, were carried in hammocks and hammocks and were surrounded by a large court. While local tribal rule remained in the Caucatal, the Chibchavlk of the Meseta of Bogot, the Muisca, were able to create larger states, even if they had not yet succeeded in establishing a unitary state. When the Spaniards arrived on the Andean highlands, the most powerful dynasts, the Zaque of Tunja and the Cipa of Bogot, fought for supremacy. The Chibcha lived in rural settlements. They were not advanced in urban development and stone houses. The economy was based on agriculture, with private land ownership. The peoples in the Caucatal had achieved excellent craftsmanship in processing gold into jewelry. The goldsmiths made stately human figures, face masks, helmets, decorative pins, breast plates and other objects, as they are mainly kept in the museum of the Colombian National Bank today. With such gold finds they believed

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Spanish conquistadors, to be close to the Dorado, to find the land of the gilded man. It was a cultic custom of the cacike of Guatavita to anoint the whole body with oil and powder it with gold dust at certain times, in order to then bathe in the holy lagoon and thus sacrifice the gold dust to the goddess who lived there. The Muisca were distinguished by their art of weaving and manufactured blankets and colorfully patterned fabrics, which were widely sold as commercial goods. The Chibcha des Caucatales, but not the Muisca, were cannibals who ate human flesh. It was common practice to sacrifice people to the gods, with children being preferred as sacrifices. All peoples knew the custom of making head trophies from slain and captured enemies. The spiritual life was on a primitive level. The writing was unknown to the Chibcha15.The mightiest empire in ancient America was the Inca empire, the empire of the four cardinal points that has no borders. The word Inka was originally only the title of ruler and the designation of the ruler, but not a particular people. A head of the city-state of Cuzco on the Andean highlands had adopted this name. The inhabitants of this mountain state belonged to the Quechua Indians. The Inca martial expansion began in the first half of the 15th century when rival Aimarast tribes in the neighborhood asked the ruler of Cuzco for help and support. The small states of the Aimara were incorporated into the Inca Empire. In quick conquests the Inca extended their rule over the Andean country and advanced to central Ecuador. Tupac Yupanqui (14711493) subjugated today's Bolivia and led campaigns as far as Chile and northwestern Argentina. Powerful states such as the kingdom of Chimor, which stretched on the coast of Tmbez to near Lima, the kingdom of Cuismancu in the valleys of Chancay, Ancn and Rimac and the kingdom of Chincha were incorporated into the empire of the Incas. Huaina Capac (14931527) suppressed rebellions in the newly conquered provinces and carried out the conquest north of Quito. The rule of the Inca now reached from Ancasmayuflu in southern Colombia to the Rio Maule in Chile. The lowlands east of the Andes have also been the target of armed expeditions, but have never been subjugated. The Indians of the highlands despised the primitive and poor people living there. After the death of the Inca Huaina Capac, there was a dispute over the succession to the throne between the firstborn son Huascar in Cuzco and the favorite son Atahuallpa, who resided in Quito, who was finally able to make his brother a prisoner through the battle of Cuzco. During the civil war in the Inca Empire, the Spaniards under Francisco Pizarro conquered Peru and eliminated the Inca, who boasted of knowing no more powerful ruler than himself. After Atahuallpa's murder (1533), the Inca rule collapsed. In 1539 the Spaniards had the land

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