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Street entertainment

[358]Street entertainment includes all measures that are necessary to keep a road or a network of roads in good condition. You have them here Administrative measures and the actually technical ones Maintenance work to distinguish.

The former include the supervision of the road, the issuing of police regulations and ordinances on how the road is used, the permissible axle loads and their relationship to the wheel rim width, the employment of suitable road attendants and unskilled workers and the like. - The Maintenance work consist in the regular removal of dust, manure, snow and ice (Street cleaning) and in the replacement of worn or otherwise damaged parts of the road surface. This requires close observation of the Road wear, traffic and road construction materials to find the most suitable material. The different ways of securing the road surface also result in different types of entertainment [1] - [4].

The Street cleaning is of the greatest importance not only for the maintenance of the road pavement and for traffic, but also for health and is currently carried out in the larger cities by specially employed teams at night or in the early morning hours ([2], p. 115– 125). On country roads, too, care must be taken to ensure that the layer of dust or manure does not become too thick. The cleaning work includes: 1. sprinkling, 2. removing dust and excrement (Blowdown, s.d.) as well as sweeping, 3. removing ice and snow. Some of these activities can be carried out by machines.

1. That Sprinkle and douse der Straßen [5], p. 58; [3], p. 422; [1], p. 370, in dry weather precedes the sweeping and can be done with watering cans, sprinklers (see below) or with hoses from hydrants, for which hoses laid on rollers or the hose reel wagon [6] are used. Sea water, i.e. salt water, has been used with good success for sprinkling, since the salt crust that formed kept the dust down better and the road, with only 1/3 the otherwise required amount of water, was kept moist longer [2], p. 118.

2. That Pulling off the dust can as well as that Drainage of the manure done by hand with wooden or iron crutches, but on gravel roads it is easy to injure the road surface, often for the latter purpose, as with Sweeping, Travel broom or Piassava brushes [3], p. 418; [1], p. 145, can be used. The dust and manure heaps that have been swept aside must be removed as soon as possible. In larger cities, the various street cleaning machines have gained more and more entrance, since with them cleaning can not only be done more cheaply, but also more quickly. One differentiates: a) The Pulling machines or Blow-Down Machines, also Scratching machines mentioned [5], p. 41; [1], p. 376; [7]. Their construction can be traced back to that of grading machines and road planers. They have shovel-like scratching shoes (scratching shoe keyboard) sitting next to each other on an axis, which are connected by means of a rectangular iron frame to a two- or four-wheeled carriage frame in such a way that they can be pressed more or less strongly against the road surface by lever devices and with adjustable, respectively. foldable inclined position to the car axis push the dust or excrement to the side in strips to the right or left. They are less suitable for paved roads than for roads and asphalt roads, on which they can also be used to clear the snow (see below), b) The Sweepers consist of a wheel frame with which a brush roller positioned at an angle to the carriage axis is connected in such a way that it is set in rotating motion by the wheel axes by means of bevel gears or chain drives and sweeps the dust or dirt aside in strips. In addition, the roller can be put out of action by lifting it [5], p. 47. In addition to the street sweeper used in Berlin by the H.F. Eckert is that of A. Hentschel in Berlin (DRP No. 40953) [2], p. 116 and [8], which is provided with a water tank so that it can also be used as a "street washing machine" and when using hot water that can be heated by a coke wrought iron boiler is made in the water tank, can also serve as a "snow melting machine". Sweepers with devices for loading and picking up the rubbish are described in [5], p. 55, [1], p. 379 and in the literature reports of [2], p. 122 and of [1] p. 453.

3. The Removal of snow and ice causes much trouble and great expense. Manual work can only be used here for smaller stretches and small amounts of snow, as well as when removing the ice from the sidewalks, from the ditches and drainage channels, and from the ruts of the trams with the familiar snow shovels and the snow and ice scrapers. Sweepers can still work with a layer of snow that is 5 cm thick. In the case of larger amounts of snow, on the other hand, snowploughs are used, which are usually pulled by horses and represent a wedge-shaped sledge equipped with a vertical iron-shod blade, which, when sufficiently weighted, throws the snow up to the right and left to form a wall and produces a drivable toboggan run. Instead of this wedge slide, snow plows similar to the pulling machines (see above) [5], p. 66; [1], p. 385, of which the H.F. Eckert "Universalstraßenpflug" [5], p. 67, built in Berlin, as well as that of Weygand & Klein Like to be mentioned. - The biggest costs are caused by Rejection the masses of snow piled up on the side of the road by the snow plows or in some other way, if one cannot simply overrun them by oneself, as is usually the case on country roads. Multiple, z. B. in Frankfurt a.M. and in Cöln a. Rh., The snow masses are thrown into the shafts of the drainage channels, which requires less time and work than the usual drive out into the open field. In the case of freshly fallen snow that is not too thick, the snow melting machine from A. Hentschel (see above) use. Liquefaction by means of road salt, as has been attempted on a large scale in Paris, has too great disadvantages for the hooves of draft animals, for shoes and for iron bridges or other iron substructures. Standing melting devices, which consist of pipe systems through which fire passes and onto which the snow to be melted is shoveled, as well as mobile melting furnaces and melting pans do not seem to have proven themselves [2], p. 117.

Road wear. To determine the material consumption for road maintenance, a precise observation of the wear and tear on the road surface caused by traffic is essential Test tracks required. This is done by taking profiles of the worn road section and comparing them with the original cross-sections. Simple leveling instruments or special devices ([2], p. 25), such as the »Profilograph«(S.d.) from Schmid [2], [9], the »autodoscope« [2], [10] by Turola, or those of Nessenius used simple measuring device [2], [4], which consists of a horizontally adjustable slat, on which about 50 cm long, smooth feet provided rods can be fixed by clamping screws at intervals of 25 cm, after they have been set down on the stone path . The profiles obtained by this device, however, as with a recording with the leveling instrument, are only defined by individual points, while the profilograph and the autodoscope allow every unevenness to be recognized by directly drawing the profile.

Values ​​of road construction materials were first in France due to extensive observations of the traffic and the wear and tear of the roads respectively. It was assumed that the quality of the material was inversely related to the amount of material used for the unit of length (1 km) and traffic unit (100 draft animals) [2]. are ω and ω ' the numerical values ​​of two materials, Q and Q ' the amount of material to be repaired annually for the same length of road for 1 km and 100 draft animals exposed to the same traffic and weather conditions, is as follows: ω: ω '= Q': Q, so ω Q = ω 'Q' = const. This product was called the test standard (Etalon de la consommation). For the hardest material (basalt from the Vosges) there was an average annual material consumption of Q = 15 cbm. For this was ω = 20 set so that the consumption norm ω · Q = 300 resulted. The table on the right could be derived by dividing by the amount consumed (cf. [2], [12], [13] and [1], p. 129). These figures, based in particular on the observation of traffic, as they were employed in a similar way in Bavaria [14], Württemberg [15] and Hanover [16], partly on special test routes, have, however, according to [17] and [18] The results have not yet been completely satisfactory because, above all, it would have to be determined with greater certainty than since then in what proportion the heavier freight traffic has to be taken into account and what influence is exerted on the wear and tear by the hooves of the animals and the type of shoeing [2 ], P. 29. In addition to the described practical efforts to determine the quality and usability of the stone material, the direct tests of pressure, grinding and drilling in dry and wet conditions that have recently been carried out at the research institutes are important , on polishability (becoming smooth) and on weather resistance [13], as well as the microscopic examinations of the materials ([13] and [15], pp. 20–33), since these allow certain materials to be eliminated from the outset and, compared to the lengthy observations on the test routes - roads of the same length, the same traffic and weather conditions are exposed and the same Have slope ratios, graveled with various materials respectively. paved and observed in the same way with regard to their wear and tear and necessary maintenance - allow an overview to be gained in a relatively short time. See a. Gravel, gravel test.

At Gravel roads Above all, the unimpeded drainage of water must be monitored so that the road surface does not soften. Extended tracks and hollows are therefore to be filled in and leveled and stones that have become loose have to be removed. Two types of execution are used to restore the roadway thickness, which has been reduced by wear and tear: 1. The Patchworki.e. the continuous maintenance or [359] partial application of the top layer. This operation requires a relatively large number of trained road attendants and only appears to be justified in areas where the stones that can be used for the ballast can be extracted immediately, as much of the material, which is mostly loosely poured in and not firmly pressed in by rolling, is lost. The need to lay out Paving stones (s.d.) the traffic is disturbed. 2. The Ceiling operation (s.d.), i.e. the complete renewal and removal of the surface layer which is repeated in certain periods of time. Continuous maintenance by filling in any track formations and potholes is not completely unnecessary, however, in the first few years after a new roofing, only a small amount of work and material is required, as the latter does not correspond to the entire annual wear and tear, but the road surface is sufficient here to be kept smooth and level, while the thickness of the surface layer can decrease to a certain extent, depending on the type of road and the size of the traffic, which can be determined by experience. - is e the smallest permissible thickness of the worn road, r the strength of the rolled, freshly graveled road, m the mean strength during the period of δ Years, u the annual amount of wear and tear, L. the length of the street, l the length to be poured annually, is according to Durand Claye [4] and [2], p. 33 (see the figure):

m = e + r /2; r = 2(m - e); r = δ u; δ = r / u; l = L / δ.

It seems best for r to choose an average thickness (0.1–0.12 m) from which one can after accepting the period δ the remaining quantities are obtained from the above formulas, since the total thickness of the road surface is given and therefore also e is known. The condition of the road is consistently better when the road surface is operated, as it is better bound and therefore more resistant, so there is also less overburden of dust, manure and loose stones; the transverse profiles are also preserved more regularly, which is more favorable for water drainage.

At Stone pavement, carefully and made of good stone, the ongoing maintenance work is insignificant and is limited to the replacement of a few crushed stones or to the repair of trough-like depressions or bump-like elevations and the new paving, which takes place at certain time intervals, depending on the traffic volume in 6-18 Years, whereby the row paving made of parallelepiped stones allows the stones to be turned over once or twice [1], p. 228.

Asphalt pavement requires the least maintenance work, which can also easily be carried out at night, i.e. without disrupting road traffic, in the case of crumbling and wave formations, and consists of softening the surface using heated metal sheets, scraping off loose parts and tamping fresh, hot asphalt stone powder. There are still too few empirical results on the extent of the wear and tear on the asphalt surface and on the length of time until a complete renewal becomes necessary.

Wooden pavement requires frequent repairs and, if there is heavy traffic, often a complete renewal after 4–5 years. - All maintenance work is usually done in spring or autumn.

Road oiling and taring. The dust created by the wear and tear of the road surface as a result of the crushing and rubbing effects of the cart wheels as well as the impact of the animal's hooves on rockfall roads, which stirs up in an annoying and health-damaging manner in fast-moving vehicles (trams, automobiles, etc.), has recently been brought about by application sought to bind an oily, viscous mass [3], pp. 537–542, [19] - [24]. At the same time, through the penetration of the oily mass into the spaces between the stones of the gravel roads, cementing of the latter and, through this and the oily coating of the road surface, a temporary reduction in wear and tear, including the formation of dust itself, is to be effected.

The attempts since then, which were carried out first in California [20], then also in various places in Europe [22], more recently in France [25], have generally shown that the desired effect does indeed occur as long as the applied layer is applied withstands and has not suffered from traffic, moisture and frost. It seems important that the road is in good condition before being treated with one of the oily masses, that is, it is best to have freshly graveled, rolled and properly dried out. In economic terms, i.e. with regard to the question of whether the oiling or taring increases or decreases the usual maintenance costs of the roads, the tests cannot yet be regarded as concluded. This also depends largely on the method of execution, the weather conditions, the climate and the local prices of the raw materials. The following oily masses were used: Petroleum (Crude petroleum), tar and artificial mixes like Asphalt and Western Rumit.

1. Application of petroleum. In California and Texas experiments with crude kerosene, usually in a heated state, have been made since 1898, by first applying only as much oil as was necessary to dampen the dust, similar to sprinkling with water. Later larger quantities were brought in by literally watering the street. This created a more resistant road surface, which then only needed to be sprinkled with a smaller amount of oil in certain gaps in order to obtain a dust-free road [20]. In 1902 in Liverpool, with good success, experiments were made with creosote oil to which small amounts of pitch were added [21]. The oil requirement was around 0.71 per square meter, which kept the road free of dust for around 3 weeks. If the rain continues, the oil is easily washed away. The foul smell and the greasy surface of the street also create defects which make oiling not recommended, especially in urban streets. For German and probably for European standards in general, oil is also too expensive.

2. Application of tar. Tarring the country roads was tried in France as early as 1880 on a road in the Gironde, then in Algiers, in Ravenna and more recently again on a larger scale in France [22], [25]. The tar was either pure or with Tar oil mixed, heated to about 80 ° C. and applied from the middle of the prepared road using watering cans and quickly spread with a broom, whereupon river sand or road dust was scattered and traffic was interrupted for 3–5 days. For the latter requirement, one has probably only tarred half of the road each time in order not to have to completely interrupt the traffic. The smell of tar has hardly proven to be a nuisance on open roads, but this is probably the case in closed urban roads, where the constant interruption of traffic on at least half of the road is also annoying. On the other hand, taring seems to prevent dust formation in a more sustainable manner than oiling, and maintenance costs are also to be reduced significantly, as taring only needs to be carried out once a year, when barking in spring. The cost becomes 0.15 Frs. (12 .) given for the square meter.

3. Application of asphalt. Signed by this name Buttner u Munich a mixture of asphalt and oils patented for him, which, like tar, is applied in a hot state and spread on the street with brushes. The effect is similar to that of taring. Occasionally at the German city exhibition in Dresden, asphalt in Lennéstrasse was used there and showed satisfactory results [23].

4. Application of Westrumit. According to the inventor C. van Westrum in Berlin named sprinkling agent of a water-soluble mixture of tar and petroleum with alkalis is used by the German oil sprinkling works brought on the market in Berlin and, according to reports, appears to have a beneficial effect on dust suppression. Its use is facilitated by the fact that it can be brought onto the street in a cold state with ordinary explosive vehicles without the need to interrupt traffic. It is also relatively cheap (1000 l are sold at 200 ℳ.). Two sprinkling with a 10% solution, whereby the second has to take place immediately after the first has dried off, should only require a further sprinkling with a 5% solution every 3–4 months on country roads. The costs are 4–5 when spraying twice with a 10% solution . With 6–8 . one square meter should be able to keep a street free of dust when traffic is light from April to October. Average traffic would be 9–12 . in heavy traffic 16–17 . to be expected per 1 qm ([3], p. 542, [24]).

Literature: [1] Laißle, Straßenbau, Handbuch d. Ingenieurwissensch., Vol. 1, section 4, 3rd edition, Leipzig 1903, chap. VIII, pp. 124-162 and 400-409. - [2] Willmann, L. v., Road Construction, Fortschr. d. Ingenieurwissensch., Second group, 4th issue, Leipzig 1895, p. 31. - [3] Loewe, Straßenbaukunde, 2nd edition, Wiesbaden 1906, pp. 557-579. - [4] Notice sur l'entretien des chaussées d'empierrement par la méthode des rechargements généraux cylindrés par Mr. Leon Durand-Claye, Ann. des ponts et chaussées 1891, II, p. 407, and magazine. f. transport w. and road construction 1893, pp. 233, 250, 265, 280, 299, 317. - [5] Sun, machines for the construction and maintenance of roads, Handbuch der Ingenieur-Wiss., Vol. 4, Dept. 3, Cape. XVI, Leipzig 1888. - [6] Wertheim, O., The hose drum wagon, magazine. d. Austrian engineer and architect ver. 1867, p. 135. - [7] Dietrich, Die Asphaltstraßen, Berlin 1882, p. 165. - [8] Zentralblatt der Bauverwalt. 1887, pp. 466 and 510. - [9] Zeitschr. f. Baukunde, 1882, S. 3. - [10] Il Politecnico 1888, S. 25. - [11] Deutsche Bauztg. 1888, p. 98. - [12] Annales des ponts et chaussées 1879, Decrets, Lois etc., p. 114. - [13] Dietrich, Die Baumaterialien der Straßen, Berlin 1885, p. 17. - [14] Zeitschr . f. Baukunde 1882, S. 3. - [15] Administrative report of the Kgl. Ministry department for road and hydraulic engineering for 1891/92 and 1892/93, 1st department, Stuttgart 1894, p. 33 ff. - [16] Zeitschr. d. Arch.- and Ing.-Ver. zu Hannover 1887, p. 409, and 1891, p. 493. - [17] Annales des ponts et chaussées 1883, I, p. 5. - [18] Ibid. 1889, II, p. 293. - [19] Oil and tar in its use for roads, Revue technique 1902, pp. 98 and 141; Magazine for transport and road construction 1902, pp. 98 and 477; 1903, pp. 115, 231, 336, 455, 487, 501; 1904, p. 326; 1905, pp. 249, 266, 344 and 440; 1906, p. 377; Central bl. d. Building management 1903, p. 558; South d. Bauztg. 1905, p. 138; Magazine d. Oesterr. Ing.- and Arch.-Ver. 1905, p. 447. - [20] Das Oelen der Straßen in California, Zeitschr. f. transport w. u. street b. 1900, p. 567; 1902, p. 397; 1903, pp. 264 and 407; 1905, pp. 3, 26, 43, 66, 87, 105, 208, 592; Magazine d. Ver. German. Ing. 1904, p. 1974; Engineer. rec. 1904, Vol. 50, pp. 752 and 780. - [21] Oelen der Straßen in Liverpool, Zeitschr. f. transport w. u. street b. 1905, p. 344. - [22] Das Teeren der Straßen, Zeitschr. f. transport w. u. street b. 1902, pp. 399 and 505; 1903, p. 472; 1904, p. 264; Ann. des ponts et chaussées 1904, II, p. 252; Magazine d. Oesterr. Ing.- and Arch.-Ver. 1904, pp. 551 and 641; Bauing.-Ztg. 1904, p. 16; Nouv. ann. d. C. constr. 1904, pp. 22, 25 and 44. - [23] Attempts to combat dust with asphalt, Zeitschr. f. transport w. u. street b. 1903, pp. 373, 391, 407; 1906, p. 393; Schmidt, C., Techn. Study booklets No. 5, p. 87. - [24] Dust control through Westrumit, Zeitschr. f. transport w. u. street b. 1904, p. 363; 1905, pp. 123 and 143; 1906, p. 193. - [25] Recent attempts at dust control in France, Ann. des ponts et chaussées 1905,1, p. 201; III, p. 232; IV, p. 260; Magazine f. transport w. u. street b. 1905, p. 43; 1906, pp. 5, 24, 42, 63, 83, 105 and 334.

L. v. Willmann.