What is non-Mendelian trait is color blindness
What is color blindness?
Someone who is "color blind" cannot see colors. That’s the simple explanation. However, if you take a more differentiated look at what is known as color blindness, there are two types of "Color blindness"(more precisely: color weakness or color ametropia). People who have red-green weakness are usually referred to as" color blind ". However, this is not correct. On the one hand, red-green weakness is usually just one "Weakness", and not a complete failure, and on the other hand only two out of three color receptors in the eye are defective.
Since approx. 9% (according to other sources only 5%) of the (male) German population are affected by a red-green weakness, the term "color blindness" is therefore often used incorrectly. An actual medical "color blindness" (Latin also "achromatopsia" or "achromasia") occurs only very rarely. In these cases, the person concerned cannot actually see any colors at all. Then the light-dark receptors have to take over the entire visual performance. Often true color blindness actually leads to a noticeable reduction in vision. The common red-green weakness, on the other hand, is rather harmless because the affected people can still see sharply and clearly. Often people with red-green weakness notice nothing at all for years.
More about how the eye works ("How does vision work?") And color weaknesses in general. If you want to test your own color perception, you can do it here as well: see Ishihara eye test. However, a medically relevant color vision test can only be carried out by an ophthalmologist or optician.
More about color blindness at Wikipedia.
Variants of color blindness
Total color blindness is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease of the retina. Women and men are equally affected. The affected people (approx. 1 / 100,000) can only differentiate between shades of gray and are also known as achromats, the cause is achromatopsia. They also suffer from poor visual acuity and hypersensitivity to bright light. There are around 3000 people with achromatopsia in Germany.
A disease similar to achromatopsia is the blue cone monochromatism, in which there is still greater residual vision in the blue area and which is inherited in an X-linked manner (locus Xq28).
Color blindness can also occur as cerebral achromatopsia, for example after a stroke, traumatic brain injury or other brain lesions. It is therefore an acquired color disorder. The cause does not lie in the eye as a sense organ itself, but in the disturbed processing of the sensory perception “color”. Visual acuity is normal because the color sensory cells function normally and the edge detection and surface separation, which takes place in upstream areas of the brain, is intact.
Correction of color blindness
Since the cause of color vision weakness or blindness is genetically determined and leads to a malformation of the sensory cells of the retina, it is actually not possible to correct color vision weakness. But they can be "tricked", at least to a small extent for a certain group of those affected.
Thanks to the development of red-green glasses (by the American company Enchroma), a significantly more color-intensive image can be produced for those affected with a medium level of expression. However, this only works in bright light by filtering out part of the light spectrum.
More about red-green glasses.
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