How to calculate the interrater reliability coefficient

  1. No category

Diagnostics for reading and spelling weaknesses

Diagnostics for reading and spelling weaknesses © Edith Staud 2012 1 Table of contents Table of contents ..................................... .................................................. ................................ 1 1. Introduction .............. .................................................. .................................................. ............. 3 2nd stages of written language development ............................... .................................................. 4 2.1 Development of reading ............................................. .................................................. .... 4 2.2 The development of spelling ........................................ ..................................... 6 3. Requirements for learning to read and write .... .................................................. ......... 7 4. Problems with learning to read and write ................................ ......................................... 12 5. Basic terms ped agogic diagnostics ................................................ ............................ 13 6. Two examples of educational diagnostics for reading and spelling weaknesses from practice 19 7. Educational advice for reading and spelling weaknesses ............................................ 24 8. Diagnostics and support for reading and spelling weaknesses in school ................. 25 9. Summary ................... .................................................. ........................................... 27 10. Bibliography ... .................................................. .................................................. ..... 28 2 1. Introduction When I was still working in the school service for physically handicapped students (I was working in the secondary school sector) I repeatedly noticed students who had very poor knowledge of reading and writing in the secondary school. Her oral performance, on the other hand, was average to good. It is of course clear that such problems have a serious impact on the school performance of those affected. Reading and writing are among the skills that are taught right at the beginning in elementary school and that a student needs every day in school in order to be able to follow the lesson well. But you also need these skills after leaving school. Anyone who cannot read newspapers, books, timetables, employment contracts, communications from authorities, letters, internet, communications from authorities, etc. has a big problem. A lot of information remains closed to him and he only has limited access to our culture. Since schools also have the task of selection (certificates and grades), there is a risk that their school career will be impaired due to insufficient reading and spelling skills, which of course also has a detrimental effect on the possibilities of graduation and career choice. This can lead to massive problems in the family and thus to an additional burden on the student, who is already burdened by these inadequate skills. I think I will never forget this student, to whom I had to give individual support in German in reading for a year in the secondary school area. After that year he had made next to no progress, he was able to read individual letters, but it was hardly possible for him to read these letters altogether as words. Then I found out that his mother can't read either and thought about the cause very much. That was years ago, at a time when the use of tests was not so common. I think that support diagnostics can help pupils to cope with such problems better by giving them targeted help and by avoiding inappropriate reactions from the “environment”. In this thesis I would like to introduce the stages of written language development and the prerequisites for learning to read and write. This forms the basis for understanding the following descriptions of the problems in learning to read and write. This is followed by the chapter on the basic concepts of educational diagnostics. Since tests are an essential part of the diagnosis of reading and spelling weaknesses, I would like to present a case study with the Hamburg writing test and the newly published test "Münsteraner spelling analysis (MRA) interactive support diagnostics with the learning server (2006)" from the University of Münster. Educational advice should be part of the diagnosis of reading and writing difficulties. That is why I would like to go into this briefly in the following chapter. The administrative rule on the promotion of pupils with difficulties in reading and / or spelling is intended to ensure that all pupils who have problems in this area can be promoted in a timely manner. How this is practiced in school is mentioned in the following chapter. 3 2. Levels of written language development In order to be able to learn to read and write, a child must be able to understand and speak the language. Most children learn this relatively easily when they are young. Since the children in their environment are usually constantly confronted with characters, access to writing does not only begin when they start school. The children also like it when stories are read to them. Sensitivity for the characteristics of written texts is to be seen as a preliminary stage for reading development (cf. Klicpera et al., 2003, p.19). Reflecting on linguistic processes should be mentioned as the precursor skills to the acquisition of written language (from around the age of five), since from this point on the children no longer only pay attention to the content-related aspect of the language, but are able to absorb linguistic information and control it in a targeted manner and applying helpful strategies in the process. They are able to see words as the basic units of language. Over time, so-called syntactic awareness also develops. This means analyzing sentences, inventing sentences and rearranging words in sentences and recognizing function words (for, however) as correct words. The ability to pay attention to the intelligibility of a message and the structure of the entire text is called pragmatic awareness. “Phonological awareness” is the ability to recognize and perceive the individual segments of language. Some children have problems with this (cf. Klicpera et al. 2003, pp. 19, 20). This raises the question of whether phonological awareness is a precursor ability for learning to read and spell. “The confrontation with the written language plays a very important role in the development of an adequate phonological awareness within the framework of the first reading lesson. - When dealing with letters as representations of sounds, children develop a deep insight into the phonological structure of language, especially at the phoneme level. ”(Klicpera et al. 2003, p. 23) 2.1 Development of reading In relation to the development of reading skills there there are different level models. “All level models agree that children use a strategy of association learning when they first begin to recognize words. For words in the text, guess based on the previous context. There is also a development in word recognition based on letters. First there is a focus on the first letter. The last letter of a word becomes the second most important stimulus. However, this does not apply to children who do not yet have a precise knowledge of the letters. For most kindergarten children, however, the mere word form is not recorded; rather, specific letters lead to word recognition. Between the 2nd and 4th grade, the children are able to use some rough features of the orthographic structure for word recognition. ”(Büttner et al. 2005, p. 55) After the basic reading learning process is over, the further development takes place in the acceleration of reading and improving text comprehension. (cf. Büttner et al. 2005, p. 55) Beckenbach describes the development of reading skills in detail and mentions 3 levels. Reading begins with learning letters and short words. The letters are deciphered by assigning speech sounds and combined into a meaningful word. The most important characteristics of a word are the letters, which are to be observed selectively. Letters have graphic and phonological features 4 that have to be processed in parallel. The following acoustic and visual components must be taken into account when reading a word: the sound differentiation, the association of a sound with a letter, the connection of the sounds, the identification of individual sounds within a word, the development of an acoustic recognition memory, the assignment of read units Spontaneous words, the recognition and differentiation of features, the recognition of the left-right alignment, the letter differentiation, the knowledge of letters and sounds, the identification of individual letters within a word, the development of a visual recognition memory and the assignment of words to images and terms (cf. Beckenbach 2000, p. 19) “In summary, reading at this first stage consists of two phases, the pre-alphabetical and the initial-alphabetical. In the early phase, reading recognition is based mainly on familiarity with the characteristics of some words (“Logographic stage according to FRITH 1985). The children identify the words solely on the basis of prominent visual features that only partially identify the letters that make up the word. The characteristics used for reading are gradually further differentiated and form the preliminary stage of knowledge of letters. The first-reading lesson in 1st grade systematically develops this prior knowledge of the identity of letters and phonemes and how they are linked. The reading of the words goes into a phase of letter-by-letter decoding, in which the words are no longer recognized directly on the basis of some features, but are reconstructed based on their pronunciation through the phonemes that are assigned to the individual graphemes (in the memory). This process is called the phonological recoding of the sequence of letters and the reading level the "alphabetical stage". (Beckenbach 2000, p. 21) The exercise automates sub-processes of the word code and the reader gets a feel for legal and illegal letter sequences. The word code is expanded to include orthographic information units and knowledge of the morphological regularities of the written language emerges, which further accelerates the reading process. Reading can then serve as a control over what is being written. At the alphabetical level, the novice reader must have a say in the reading process. By reading aloud, the direct connections between word image and word meaning are systematically strengthened. The reader takes up more and more words in his mental lexicon. Then there is another type of word processing, the rhythmic-melodic structuring competence, in which groups of letters can be combined to form spoken syllables. This makes the reading process considerably faster. Knowledge of general word structures is created, which is the prerequisite for the perception of more highly structured information units. In the third stage of reading development, the focus is on cross-word information processing. Now the affiliation of a word to its word class is recognized. Syntactic knowledge of upper and lower case, punctuation marks and sentence structures ensure that words can be read at a glance. The processing of global word meanings without phonological recoding is a prerequisite for correct reading despite small text irregularities (printing errors). In the orthographic lexicon, the complete information of the letter sequence of a word is stored and can be activated at any time (cf. Beckenbach 2000, pp. 22-24). Bad readers guess the words, it is a "false reading" that I have often observed in my teaching practice. 5 2.2 The development of spelling In preschool age the child imitates the writing of the adult holistically. Letters are represented graphically like pictures, the order of the characters does not matter. The spatial position of the characters and the direction of writing have not yet been determined. After this phase of pure painting, the children try to read their own works. In the phase of the sound-letter assignment, the children understand that words are written according to the sequence of sounds. The transition to alphabetical storage in the orthographic lexicon (in the language system of long-term memory) begins. Then the alphabetical strategy increases more and more. At the level of alphabetical writing control, the rules are applied unconsciously. In the next stage, acoustic impressions and speech motor sensations are in the foreground. The children have a say in the writing process, which increases their writing skills, but there are loud misspellings. The children orientate themselves one-sidedly on the phonetic characteristics of words. Slowly, however, alphabetically supported storage in the internal orthographic lexicon is becoming better and more economical. The children become familiar with the laws of word structure. Then follows the stage of corrected alphabetical constructions. Now the children recognize the structural deviations from the spoken language. Extensive reading and correct writing train the visual orthographic memory and the graphomotor memory. However, the majority of the words cannot be called up directly from the internal orthographic lexicon at this level. In the orthographic stage, the children have a sound phonological foundation for writing true to aloud. Recognized "laws" are applied to all words. It is a form of over-generalization of cognitive constructions that are typical for this level mostly in the late second to middle of the third grade. The rule learning phase then begins. Further structural findings are included in the internal orthographic lexicon. The children now know the phonological structure of words, they know about the regular deviations in writing and they know orthographic rules. The cognitive constructions are based on the spoken language and the content of the internal lexicon. Frequently saved words activate the corresponding word images and writing motor planning. This enables the children to learn the syntactic-grammatical rules of the written language. At this level, too, the newly learned rules are over-generalized. There are still a few problems, the only way to learn is to store them in the form of memo words in the internal orthographic lexicon. The cognitive constructions are being adapted to the written language system better and better, the stored representations can increasingly be called up automatically. There is an automated word processing and high speed with increased precision. A comprehensive written vocabulary arises, which is stored in the internal orthographic lexicon of long-term memory and is automatically available (cf. Beckenbach 2000, pp. 27-34) 6 3. Prerequisites for learning to read and write In this chapter I would like to attempt the To present neuropsychological requirements and supporting functions of learning to read and write briefly and in a simplified manner, as far as this is possible in this form. The brain is the switching point in which all external impressions are processed. When coping with reading and writing, many widely dispersed cell groups work together in different areas of the brain and on different functional levels. The brain functions and functional systems depend on the age development, the individual maturation conditions and the genetic requirements. The motor maturation processes and learning to speak are important for the development of written language. The perceptual functions in the areas of hearing, seeing, movement and orientation are linked to this (cf. Beckenbach 2000, p. 39). Even in infancy, children learn to compare and classify environmental events. The first rules of interaction are also learned. The child actively reacts to new things. Linguistic naming is possible on the basis of the developed conceptual patterns. To do this, the child must be able to differentiate between different noises and sound structures. The word sound patterns must be perceived as the same every time, regardless of pitch, volume and dialect. The ability to ignore small, perceptible differences is required. This is known as the emergence of phonological invariants. Figure-ground perception means that the child is able to filter out important noises and voices from a background noise. Tongue and mouth motor skills, phonation and breathing are involved in articulatory speech production.To learn to write, one needs graphomotor skills (control of the hand when writing) and oculomotor skills (outer eye muscles) when reading (cf. Beckenbach 2000, pp. 39, 40). “The most developed and most failure-prone functional system is the sequential regulation of stimuli, which has to break down all processes organized in temporal processes, as represented by goal-oriented linguistic action, into details and integrate them into a precise serial pattern. To do this, the sentence and word boundaries must be heard from the whole flood of speech sounds (segmentation with the help of memory); in the case of written language, the analysis units are even on the (artificial) linguistic level of individual sounds (phonological analysis). In order to be able to write correctly, the words must be broken down into the order of their individual phonemes. In language production, all the necessary units are used one after the other in an order that corresponds to the semantic and syntactic rules. Sequences can be stored in a specially designed sequence memory. In doing so, not only is the position of individual elements retained, but complete sequences are saved as a larger unit, which are then also available as a whole when a single recall pulse occurs. This process achieves a high degree of automation that allows language processing to run at the necessary speed and frees up the capacity to pay attention to other things, such as the content of a linguistic utterance. The optimal functioning of the same auditory processing processes and functional systems seems to be the prerequisite for the acquisition of spoken as well as written language. ”(Beckenbach 2000, pp. 40, 41) At the age of approx. 18 months, the intermodal sensory integration is complete. The child can now grasp, turn, sit, crawl, babble and run and in the area of ​​perception he has made tremendous progress. At the level of the serial and 7 sequential processes, it learns to combine stimuli that follow one another in time and to process them in their relationships to one another. The children learn to anticipate movement sequences and actions internally and to plan them in advance. This is of particular importance for the acquisition of the language. This going through the sensory maturation stages of the brain seems to be a prerequisite for the ability to understand and analyze the meaning of signs. This is the basis for language acquisition and a prerequisite for reading and writing and acquiring social behavior (cf. Beckenbach 2000, pp. 41, 42). Learning a language is not always easy and natural. The most common cause of incorrect pronunciation is incorrect hearing processing of word-sound-shapes while the child is learning to speak. The result is a malfunctioning speech motor skills and a speech disorder develops. Use of language also means use of written language. Spoken and written language are closely linked (see Beckenbach 2000, p. 43). In the case of hearing processing problems, hearing damage should always be excluded. If hearing impairment is excluded and central disorders of the auditory area can be demonstrated, one speaks of disorders of auditory speech perception. The perception services for the analysis of linguistic information are the acoustic separation of useful sound and background noises, discrimination, identification and differentiation of sounds and sounds and the grasping of the meaning of a sound message. This is the highest form of speech processing. The speech sound is recognized before it is semantically interpreted. Speech recognition begins after the sound is broken down in the inner ear. There, the useful sound is separated from interfering noises, analyzed and pre-recognized as a meaningful signal. The speech sound is temporarily stored in its raw form. In the second phase of speech processing, the phonetic phase, the information in the auditory memory is sorted and combined according to language properties. This phonetic segment is held in phonetic memory. Speech recognition is also important for the acquisition of written language. In the course of language development, close, automated connections are created between the phonological and semantic processing units in the brain, which also control language production. When the children learn to read and write, a functioning and automated network of memory units is already in place, which forms the basis for the beginning of written language processing (cf. Beckenbach 2000, pp. 43-49). 60) Hearing processing and speech recognition form a unit, fine motor kinesthetic and rhythmic-intonational processes play a role in the production of the production and storage of language. “The ability to break down the phonological structure of language events into different segments is the crucial preliminary stage in learning to read and write. It is summarized under the term “phonological awareness”. This is understood to mean the recognition of the elements of spoken language that differentiate meaning, as is necessary to supplement imperfect sound messages (words) when listening or to correct sound formation disorders when speaking. It presupposes the availability of the temporally sequential sound pattern in the memory and the ability to hear certain sound segments from the continuous sound event. ”(Beckenbach 2000, p.68) These skills are independent of the associative connection with the vocabulary and come before the content-related interpretation of the message to carry. It should also be noted: “The closest connection with problems in the acquisition of written language is between deficits in the field of analytical and synthetic phoneme processing (phonological awareness in the narrower sense, metaphonological skills) and difficulties in learning to read and, above all, to learn to write. Metaphonological problems in school usually develop from limited phonological awareness in the broader sense, which shows up in preschool as a weakness in rhyming and clapping syllables. ”(Beckenbach 2000, p. 71) An early diagnosis is therefore very important for successful treatment important. In addition to hearing processing, there can also be problems with information processing in the visual area. Impairment of vision can lead to disorders that affect the speed and quality of visual perception. Children with difficulties in learning to read and write are less able to solve tasks that require visual sequential processing than children without these problems. Their inferiority increases the more the graphic processing resembles a reading task. A subgroup of reading and spelling weaknesses processes the information of the typeface only slowly and uses only parts of it, aspects of the spatial position and order are inadequately coded. The result is less stored word-specific information. Another subgroup of children with reading and spelling problems suffers from an insecurity with right-left orientation and the processing of sequential information. Left-handers who have been retrained to the right have the problem that their dominant hemisphere must first switch to the “wrong” side. In addition, studies on visual information processing have found that children with poor spelling are clearly inferior to normal children in processing letter-bound information (cf. Beckenbach 2000, p.9294). The development of reading and writing skills is closely related to the changes that verbal memory representations go through in the first year of school. The 9 written words stay the same from the start, but how they are used changes. The changes correspond to the stage models of reading and spelling development. The acquisition of written language is a process from the slow, attention-controlled to the fast and largely automated coding of the visual and phonological input. The preliminary stage of learning to read and write is the availability of a fully automated language memory with phonological, articulatory and semantic processing units. Long before they start school, children can filter out word meanings from a sound stream by means of phonological coding and formulate words and sentences. This connection between the phonological and the meaning recognition unit is the basis for the connection with the visual graphic memory representations that arise during the development of the written language in the orthographic lexicon. These links establish connections with the phonological as well as the semantic code. Verbal language can be subdivided into individual sounds and structured in time, as it corresponds to the spatial arrangement of the discrete characters. The assignment of phonemes to graphemes can be learned successfully. In order to reach the level of automated processing, a high level of familiarity with the letters and groups of letters in the font is required. The corresponding phonetic and articulatory codes are made available in the working memory in an invariant manner in order to be able to process the graphemes occurring in the word. The structure of the orthographic lexicon depends on how much is written and read and how accurate the reading attempts are. The orthographic memory does not initially contain any word images, but is largely determined acoustically. The organization of the orthographic memory changes with practice. All characters contained in the word are saved. This increases the independence and speed of retrieving information. Further practice creates an autonomous state of storage. This is the transition to the orthographic level of learning to read and write (cf. Beckenbach 2000, pp. 116,117). In order to go through these stages of development without problems, the functionality of the memory system in the language-relevant parts is a prerequisite. Undisturbed handling of the phonological information is necessary for the recognition and further processing of the language. In children with reading and writing difficulties, the ability to build and maintain adequate phonological representations in working memory is impaired. There is a mix-up of similarly coded tracks and thus distinction errors in sound-like phonemes and reproduction errors in the correct sequence of speech sounds and the corresponding letter characters. The child is also impaired in access to his vocabulary and in the storage of morpho-syntactic sentence structures (cf. Beckenbach 2000, p. 118). When reading and writing, a visual-spatial subsystem of working memory is also involved, which represents the material basis for the intermodal recognition processes of the characters. Words can be recognized even without real reading using episodic information (images, underlining, etc.) and linguistic competence. Children who can process visual sequential information only more slowly and who have deficits in the verbal recoding of the items in working memory use strategies known as fake reading. As a result, their ability for direct orthographic-semantic coding remains underdeveloped for a long time. The number of entries in the long-term memory remains low. A verbal processing weakness has arisen due to the deficits in the language representation in the orthographic memory and the inability to autonomously activate complete word images. 10 Prior phonological and orthographic knowledge is required to decode the writing; the quality of verbal processing depends on the vocabulary and the orthographic lexicon and its integration. The basis for an efficient information process is laid on the alphabetical level of written language development, at which point the phonological and articulatory activation patterns are linked with the entries in the orthographic memory. The ability of phonematic awareness and the competence of phonetic writing are built up. In children with severe reading and spelling disorders, these basic requirements for the acquisition of written language remain underdeveloped. Due to the failures in reading and writing, they increasingly avoid contact with the written language, which increases the deficits (cf. Beckenbach 2000, p.118, 119). 11 4. Problems of learning to read and write This chapter can be found on page 113 in the book “Special Education - Findings in Brain Research and its Significance for Pedagogy for the Physically Disabled” by Edith Staud, Michael Staud (2011) Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt 12 5. Basic concepts Pedagogical diagnostics If the teacher notices in class that a student has serious problems with reading and spelling, he of course wants to know what the cause of these problems is and whether and how he can help the student through targeted support. This endeavor has been around since pedagogical action has taken place. Scientifically controlled processes are used today. What is meant by this pedagogical diagnosis? “Educational diagnostics encompasses all diagnostic activities through which the prerequisites and conditions of planned teaching and learning processes are determined for individual learners and those in a group, learning processes are analyzed and learning results are determined in order to optimize individual learning. Educational diagnostics also includes diagnostic activities that enable assignment to learning groups or individual support programs as well as the more socially anchored tasks of managing the next generation of education or the granting of qualifications. Diagnostic activity is understood to mean a procedure in which (with or without diagnostic instruments) observing and questioning is carried out in accordance with scientific quality criteria, the observation and survey results are interpreted and communicated in order to describe a behavior and / or the reasons for this behavior explain and / or predict future behavior. The main task of educational diagnostics is therefore to make the right decisions for the learner. The decisions relate to funding, placement and selection measures. Pedagogical diagnostics follows the principle of optimization and uses scientific methods. ”(Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 13, 14) In pedagogical diagnostics, observed behavior is compared (with the previous behavior of the same person, with other people or with behavior descriptions or behavioral standards). Observed behavior is analyzed in order to identify the reasons for the deviations. Observed behavior is predicted in order to be able to draw conclusions about behavior in the future or in other situations, and finally observed behavior is interpreted so that a judgment can then be made after weighting and evaluating the information about behavior. This behavioral assessment must be communicated to others in order to influence future behavior. The effect of this communication should be checked in order to determine whether the desired success has been achieved (see Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 43). From behavioral assessment one arrives at the concept of measurement, which is defined as follows: “Measurement is the determination of the characteristics of a property of a (measurement) object (object, event, person, situation, assessment issue) and is carried out by assigning numbers to Measurement objects. ”(Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 44) During the measurement, information about the characteristics of objects, organisms or events should be obtained. The measurements can take place at different levels of accuracy. Four levels are indicated by four scales. The lowest measurement level is called the nominal scale. At this level it is only about the qualitative similarity of the characteristic. However, a clear assignment must always be possible. Counting can be used to determine the frequency with which a category is occupied. The value that occurs most frequently, the mode value, is the measure of the central tendency (the mean value) (cf. Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 47). 13 The most important characteristic of an ordinal or rank scale is that one can put a characteristic expression in a sequence. The direction of the degree of expression is also known. For example, the censorship scale is an ordinal or rank scale, the distances between the individual grades usually do not reflect the same distances between the real performance. (cf. Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 48) “Since the censorship scale is an ordinal scale, we are not allowed - if we want to proceed correctly - to calculate any arithmetic mean values ​​for grades either, ie no average grade, as many teachers do anyway and how this is repeatedly required in the examination regulations. ”(Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 48) The interval scale has the same scale intervals. Although it is not yet possible to make any statements about the proportions between the scale values, it is possible to calculate arithmetic mean values, it is a metric scale. With the ratio or proportion scale one can make statements about the proportions.The scale units are the same and refer to a natural and non-arbitrary zero point. Statements can also be made about the equality of relationships. All statistical operations can be carried out (see Ingenkamp et al. 2005, pp. 48,49). Every social science measurement must meet certain methodological quality criteria. The most important quality criteria are objectivity, reliability of the reliability and the validity or validity. The first criterion is objectivity. It should be noted: "A measurement is objective if intersubjective influences of the examiner can be eliminated as far as possible." (Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 52) A distinction is made between implementation objectivity, evaluation objectivity and interpretation objectivity. “When it comes to implementation objectivity, one tries to ensure that all learners are subjected to the same requirements under the same conditions. The task, the processing time, the explanations of the tasks, the permitted aids, etc. ”(Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 52) are standardized. The question of which behavior is to be assessed when evaluating objectivity arises. It can be improved by specifying the observation criteria and training the assessors. Multiple joice tasks (you can only tick the solution) do more justice to this criterion. The objectivity of interpretation is given if several assessors interpret the same evaluation result in the same way. Regarding objectivity, it should be noted that it is only the prerequisite for the reliability and validity of a measurement (cf. Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 53). The next criterion is reliability. "Reliability or reliability of a measurement is understood to mean the degree of certainty or accuracy with which a certain characteristic can be measured." (Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 54) A measurement cannot be more reliable than the stability of the characteristic. "The degree of reliability of a measurement is determined by the reliability or reliability coefficient." (Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 55) The reliability coefficient indicates the extent to which the test results can be reproduced. Various methods can be used to estimate the reliability of a test. The first of these is the iteration method or retest method. The same tasks are processed by the same people at different times and the relationship between the results is calculated, which is expressed in a reliability coefficient. The problem here is that there are exercise effects and the test subjects can remember the tasks (cf. Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 55) 14 These problems do not arise with the halving method or split-half method. The compilation of tasks is halved and evaluated separately. Then you calculate the relationship between the results of the two test halves and thus obtain an indication of the halving reliability. “If you divide the test into as many parts as it has tasks and correlate the tasks with one another, you get a measure of the consistency of the test. The method of consistency analysis is very popular among empirically working researchers. ”(Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 55) If you have two different sets of exercises that are as similar as possible in terms of content, you can use the parallel test method. Both parallel forms are given one after the other. The relationship between the results can be expressed in a reliability coefficient. (cf. Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p.56) The reliability of a measurement shows how precisely it is measured. The standard error of measurement is interesting (for the teacher). It indicates the range of points in which the student's true performance value will lie with a certain probability. The standard error of measurement is calculated using the reliability coefficient and the standard deviation of the test. (see Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 56) The most important criterion is the validity or validity. “The validity or validity of a procedure says whether what is actually measured is what you want to measure, and not something else.” (Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 57) The test method distinguishes between four types, the content match prediction - and construct validity. “The validity of the content is quite a problematic criterion. A description of the content is available for a specific behavior. Certain tasks have been constructed that are supposed to lead to expressions of behavior. Expert judgments must now determine to what extent the tasks and the behavioral statements required by them agree with the previously described behavior. ”(Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 57)“ The validity of agreement determines how far the results obtained with an investigation instrument are and the data that are available at the same time, but obtained in a different way, coincide. "(Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 58)" In the case of predictive validity, the relationship between an examination finding determined at an earlier point in time and the criterion behavior determined at a later point in time is calculated. "( Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p.58) Agreement and predictive validity are both collectively referred to as empirical validity. Construct validity, on the other hand, refers to a theoretical construction, an existing construct, on the basis of which the results are checked for validity. Constructs are derived, not immediately tangible, latent and complex features such as intelligence, test anxiety, etc., which influence our behavior and are viewed as relatively persistent. So when is an instrument constructively valid? "The instrument is constructively valid if the relationships actually found show a high level of agreement with the theoretical model." (Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p.59) The validity or validity is the most important criterion. No test is valid if it is not objective and reliable. (cf. Ingenkamp et al. 2005, pp. 59,60) In addition to these three quality criteria, there are other secondary product criteria in the literature, which I do not want to mention here in the context of this work, as I want to limit myself to the essential points. To ensure the quality standard of the tests, the DIN 33430 standard was introduced. 15 “Compliance with quality standards in diagnostic procedures and their application is to be ensured by DIN 33430 for the area of ​​job-related aptitude diagnostics. The guidelines have a model character for all areas of application of educational diagnostics. ”(Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p.62) In order to be able to assess the results of a test correctly, reference points, the standards, are required for the assessment. The simplest norm is the percentile rank scale. The percentile rank defines, for example, the position of a student within a group of students with regard to a characteristic. A percentile rank of 50 means that 50% of the comparison group did as well or worse. A comparison is thus possible. It is a measurement at the level of a rank or ordinal scale, in which the same scale intervals must not be assumed. Therefore, no mean values ​​or measures of dispersion should be calculated. That is why the T-value scale was created. It is an interval scale. The T-score scales and the deviant intelligence quotients are most common in the educational field. (cf. Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 72) “The T-value scale has a mean value of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. The deviation intelligence quotients have a mean value of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. The measurements of different characteristics on one Interval scale levels only allow students to be compared directly if they come from comparable samples. It is common practice to include the IQ with the test name so that the test user knows how to classify this IQ. Skill-oriented norms differ from norms in which a different group of people is used for comparison. They allow statements to be made about the performance of people based on the tasks they have solved. ”(Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 72,73) In addition to the use of tests, observation is an important method in educational diagnostics. Each teacher observes the behavior of his students. Now, if a student has certain problems in an area, the teacher will likely watch them for information about the cause. High demands must be placed on this observation in educational diagnostics, because assessment tasks are solved as a result of this observation, such as student reports, expert opinions. The danger here is the tendency to falsify, because the perception is always impaired by various physical, psychological and social influences. If we choose only those from a plethora of existing stimuli that meet our expectations and needs, then selection takes place. Perceptual stimuli are reorganized to fit certain personality theories or stereotypes that we have. This is called organization. Fixation is understood to mean the tendency to defend oneself against change and to transfer existing impressions to new perceptual stimuli, even if they do not match. With accentuation, certain stimuli are given special weight, while others are suppressed. A reference error is when an observation is compared to an inappropriate pattern. This is the case with errors of measurement, if the judgment is too mild or too strict. When features are related to each other that are not related, this is called a related error. Even further problems during observation can arise from overstrained ability to differentiate, imprecise definition, unfamiliarity with the observation units and unfamiliarity with the test group. (Cf. Ingenkamp et al. 2005, pp. 75-77) "Scientific observation differs from naive in the question that Selection of observation situations, the selection and 16 categorization of the behavior that is intended to answer the question by recording the observation results and by methods of determining their objectivity, reliability and validity. In their practice, educators will mostly fall back on unsystematic and participatory observation, they will take event samples and write down the observation results retrospectively. But even within these limits, the observation can be systematized and improved. Highly inferior property judgments can be made more precise by specifying specific situations and behaviors. Indicators are used to operationalize non-behavioral constructs. Index and category systems as well as estimation scales can be used for observation logging. This is the right way to make observations more reliable and valid. ”(Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p.95) If a teacher has observed a pupil in class because of a reading and spelling weakness, he will talk to him and possibly also to his parents about it by conducting a survey. "Survey methods are a way of finding out information about facts or attitudes, interests, evaluations, etc. from the students, teachers or parents themselves." (Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 103) The respondents are made assertions through verbal or written questions , Images prompts verbal reactions to obtain information on the question area. "Scientific survey methods differ from everyday conversations in the clarification of the diagnostic goal, the planning of the questions and the evaluation of the answers and control of the entire process guided by the theory." (Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p.103) There is a difference between oral and written questionnaires differentiated. The oral survey is more time-consuming. It can be more adapted to the respondent's needs. In the case of written surveys, questionnaires are used which, as a scientific instrument, are the result of careful and elaborate expert construction. (cf. Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 104) After the observation and questioning, the teacher will use a test to obtain information about the type and extent of his pupil's reading and spelling weaknesses Help a behavior sample that is supposed to represent the prerequisites for or results of learning processes, as comparable, objectively, reliably and validly as possible and can be evaluated, interpreted and used for their educational activities by teachers or educators "(Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 105) The school performance tests also include the reading and spelling tests, which I would particularly like to deal with in this thesis. A test can be carried out with individuals or groups, with more group tests being carried out in the educational field. In each test, tasks are set that are essentially questions that require information and an answer. A distinction is made between the free and the bound answer form. The fill in the blank is one of the free forms of answer. Here words or parts of words are left out in sentences that have to be used after understanding. A supplementary task can always be used when a short, correct or clearly best answer has to be determined. A distinction is made between the assignment form and the alternative forms of the bound answer forms. The allocation form is suitable for querying facts. For the alternative forms, two answers are offered to choose between. In the answer selection form, the test person should select the correct solution from four or five offers 17. The essay or short essay form examines the extent to which the subject is able to verbally express thoughts appropriately, while at the same time avoiding the evaluation problems of essays. The disadvantage is that the evaluations are less reliable and valid. Finally, there are the performance tasks to be mentioned. The students have to work on different tasks of a complex question. Competencies are to be determined here. The course and results of learning processes (portfolios, projects, exhibitions, etc.) are recorded. It must be clear which competencies are to be diagnosed and how the performance is to be assessed. Checklists or estimation scales are often used for the assessment. (cf. Ingenkamp et al. 2005, pp. 110-117) “Almost all tests that can be used in the educational field are constructed according to the rules of classical test theory. Your central question is directed to the determination of "true" value and error value, which is why it is also referred to as measurement error theory. Some of the assumptions of this classical test theory are no longer tenable. The probabilistic test theory or item response theory offers numerous innovations in the context of population-independent measurement, computerized adaptive testing and change measurement. The fact that test results can be compared with one another despite different selection of tasks opens up new possibilities for diagnostics and research into learning prerequisites and results. In practice, however, the procedures of the probabilistic test theory have not yet been able to establish themselves. ”(Ingenkamp et al. 2005, p. 129) In pedagogical diagnostics I see clear progress and great help in the area of ​​pedagogical action. It is an instrument that helps in the case of learning difficulties, to research the causes, improves the possibilities for comparison and is an aid for the teacher in the assessment. This enables targeted support that helps the student to better overcome his or her learning difficulties. That is why diagnostics are usually referred to as support diagnostics, because they not only determine a fact, but also record ways in which the problem is to be dealt with. 18 6. Two examples Pedagogical diagnostics for reading and spelling weaknesses from practice The question arises as to why a teacher still needs diagnostic aids at all if he discovers that a student has problems reading and spelling. Since he is not a doctor, the first thing he cannot do is determine whether the student's hearing and vision are impaired in any way. In the class during his lesson it is not so easy for him to observe the student as diagnostic criteria require, since his attention is concentrated on what is happening in the lesson as a whole. Finally, a conversation with the student himself and also with his parents provides further information on the problem. He will then use a test because he has no objective benchmarks for comparison in his class or school. Since he also designs and evaluates the review of the performance in terms of requirements and implementation, he does not know which part of the failure is a subjective reaction to his person or his requirements. The tests distinguish between tests for reading skills and the precursor skills to reading and writing. There are reading comprehension and spelling tests. There are suitable funding programs for many of these diagnostic instruments. There are also newer tests for assessing phonological awareness and other precursor skills.If necessary, the use of intelligence tests is also useful in order to be able to adapt the support measures to the intellectual performance. However, the teacher should always critically analyze his own didactic approach. (cf. Ingenkamp et al. p. 225) In the following I would like to present two cases from practice: First case: It concerns a child from the 3rd grade of elementary school who stood out because of written language difficulties. Since the child now also reacted somatically, it was examined in a clinic. An intelligence test carried out there resulted in a borderline above-average intelligence. Since hearing impairment was found, this area was examined more closely. It turned out that there was an auditory processing and perception disorder. Dichotic hearing (the ability to understand different language information occurring at the same time with both ears) is impaired. People who have problems doing this suffer from information deficits as they only turn to the acoustic event that is closest to them. The children may then only hear what the person sitting next to them is saying; the teacher's speech sound source is not perceived at that moment. Problems also arose with the differentiation of sounds (the ability to recognize and differentiate between noises, tones and rhythms). The ability to differentiate sounds makes it possible to reliably recognize speech sounds and their position in the word. It is essential for understanding words and sentences and for speaking correctly. In the event of disturbances in this area, the person concerned cannot hear individual letters, syllables or parts of words and sentences or put them in the right place. They find it difficult to break down words on the linguistic level. Another impairment affects auditory memory, particularly phoneme memory. The listening and memory spans are the ability to store successive sound events in order to process them further. To understand language, it is not enough to just be able to differentiate between individual sounds. Rather, it is necessary to save this until the end of the word. The meaning of sentences is only revealed when they have been heard to the end and also saved in memory. Here children can have problems keeping dictations in the form of longer sentences. This can lead to them trying to complete and choosing the often completely wrong 19 word, or parts of words and sentences being missing. The children need longer to internalize new terms and to automate linguistic structures. Since there is obviously also a family disposition for LRS, the written language development was checked after a parenting interview. 1. Reading a) Standardized checking with the Würzburger Leise reading sample by Küspert and Schneider. This test measures reading performance in primary school grades 1-4. This test measures the reading speed by comparing written words with 4 alternative images and painting the corresponding image. The processing time including instructions is 15 minutes. b) Informal review based on reading sections 1-4 from Grissemann's Zurich reading test. This is a single test to detect dyslexic children. The area of ​​application is in the 2nd to 6th grade. The ZLT consists of the following sub-tests: (1) single sounds and sound combinations; (2) word reading test (3 sections); (3) Reading sections (5 text sections). The children read from the test cards. The experimenter marks the type of reading error on the test sheet and measures the reading time with the stopwatch for tests 2 and 3. The raw value sums can be compared with standard tables. 2. Writing a) Standardized examination with the Hamburg writing test, HSP 3, by Peter May. The use of this test is possible from the middle of the 1st grade to the end of the 9th grade. It is a group and individual test. The test words or test sentences are read out by the teacher and illustrated in the test booklet with the aid of illustrations. The number of correctly spelled words and the number of grapheme hits can be determined. On the basis of a differentiated view, correctly and incorrectly applied spelling strategies can be determined. The processing time for the test book is usually less than 30 minutes. Summary, evaluation, measures: This child has a reading and spelling weakness with a clear discrepancy to the general cognitive performance. Reading skills are impaired by poor accuracy and slow reading speed. The main difficulties in writing are the spelling deviations from aloud writing. There is also a wide range of errors. Attention and control problems must be considered as the causative component of reading spelling difficulties. The decisive factor for effective LRS promotion is symptom-oriented direct promotion of the written language, taking into account the current level of development, as it results from the reading and spelling analysis. Suggested support measures were: Word structuring and word derivation exercises on the morpheme level (dividing words into word modules, deriving words from the root word or from related words) Exercise programs: Klaus Kleinmann: Die Wortbaustelle, AOL Verlag Promotion of the orthographic spelling strategy Working with the error index (discussing and improving error words and repeat regularly with written and rule comments) Rule-oriented exercise program: Marburg spelling training by Schulte-Körne et al. 20 Promotion of reading accuracy and reading comprehension as well as concentration: Funny reading training by Karin Pfeiffer, from vol. 3, Stolz Verlag Second case: This test person is meanwhile already 23 years old. He started speaking when he was about 2 years old. Often he did not react at all to verbal requests, which often led to misunderstandings. His area of ​​interest was more in the technical-mathematical area. He started school a year later, because at the age of 6 he was not judged to be ready for school. The problem was the one-sided talent. On the one hand, at the age of 6, i.e. a year before starting school, he was able to solve multiplication problems and create technical toy constructions for which an age of 9-10 years was specified in terms of the degree of difficulty, on the other hand he was offered offers which concerned the linguistic area not very interested. This problem persisted throughout his entire school days and had the consequence that he was constantly under-challenged in the mathematical-technical area, while he had to strive for a long time in the more linguistic areas to get average grades. At the end of elementary school, he was diagnosed with reading and writing difficulties. The hearing ability was examined and the eyesight was checked by the ophthalmologist. Both were evidently inconclusive. He complained that he had problems understanding what was being said when there was background noise. This indicates an impairment in dichotic hearing. If you talked to him too quickly, he often didn't understand what you were trying to tell him. His pronunciation is a bit sluggish at times, but that's not very noticeable. In the fourth grade there were a lot of mistakes in the spelling dictations. The more he practiced, the more mistakes there were in the dictations. There were problems with the distinction between ß and ss, between d and t, das and that, f and v, z and tz, i and ie, in upper and lower case and with commas. It was also noticeable that he confused right and left for a long time and was repeatedly unable to correctly name the times, which indicates an impairment of the sequential stimulus processing. To correct the spelling weaknesses, daily practice was carried out with a flash card to build up the basic vocabulary. The same thing was done when learning the foreign languages. The test person attended grammar school and through the additional support for spelling weaknesses, which was carried out over several years, he was never particularly noticeable in the linguistic subjects there. His achievements in this area were middle area. This was so possible because he was receiving additional funding in the domestic field, but he also had the will to face this problem. However, that was always a problem for him, which at times also put a lot of strain on the family. He was now ready to be retested to see if there were still any spelling problems. For this I have chosen the Münster Spelling Analysis (MRA). The spelling test for class 5/6 + was used because this test can also be used in adults. After ordering the MRA sample set, I received 1 spelling test 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, instructions for carrying out the test and the manual for spelling support. In the manual you can find an overview of "The modules of learning server support diagnostics". The current offer contains the following modules: 1. Spelling diagnosis 2. Learning server support: individually or tailored to groups 3. Accompanying and qualification material 4. Lesson sequences for grades 5/6 5. Funding folders for grades 2/3 and spelling customers for Grades 3/4 and 5/6 6. Advice, advanced training and information events 7. Open-end exchange: (cf. Schönweiss 2007, p. 8) 21 Chapter 1 on spelling diagnosis introduces the test construction . The tests are gap dictations. Two areas are tested, the basic area (careful writing, concentration, perception, storage) and the standard area / orthographic skills (use of spelling rules, morphological orientation and other aspects of spelling). The fill-in-the-blank must be handwritten after dictation. When selecting the vocabulary, the curricula of all federal states were taken into account. The tests also contain unknown words (see Schönweiss 2007, p. 10). The tests are evaluated using the computer. The misspellings are entered online. This is possible because after ordering you will receive a portal ID number, a user name and a password in writing. It is the log-in data for the personal learning server portal. A brief instruction for the learning server system was also included with the shipment. Entering the misspellings should take 5-8 minutes, but you have to expect more time the first time, as I have found. The homepage was stable, which is very gratifying. The performance profile is explained in detail in the manual. Even a “non-specialist” can understand this very well. The learning server funding consists of individual funding packages that can be obtained online, as a CD or as a book. The “Handbook for Spelling Aid” is available as an accompanying and qualification material. Since the focus of this work is in the field of diagnostics. I would now like to turn to this area again. First, I carried out the test as instructed, with the subject filling in the gap dictation of level 5/6. It didn't take very long, about 30-40 minutes. Since my test subject is obviously still heavily burdened with spelling problems from his school days, symptoms of stress showed up towards the end of the test. I assume that this had a negative effect on the test result. This probably increased the number of errors. According to him after the test, his knowledge of how to write the words was affected by the stress. He was afraid of not going fast enough and felt in a situation like at school. The test person felt stressed, had the right to do everything flawlessly and had a headache after the test, although he knew that the whole thing was completely anonymous and had no consequences. I actually tried to create a relaxed atmosphere and carried out the test exactly as instructed. I hadn't expected this effect either. The question in this case is whether the test has still measured what it is supposed to measure (validity). In my opinion, that was not due to the test, I doubt whether such a factor can be switched off at all. But I can imagine that this could also be the case with other adult test subjects. Then the evaluation took place. The entry is successful with the brief instructions for the learning server system. Detailed instructions for operating the learning server system can be found as a PDF document for download in the learning server portal. I anonymized the student data. Sometimes the controls didn't seem intuitive. The icons weren't labeled, without the quick start guide I would have had problems. When specifying the legibility of the text, there is only the choice between legible and poorly legible, also with the typeface between calm and uncoordinated, I had problems making a decision. After the input I received a performance profile with the error distribution. In the control area, this provides information on what still needs to be practiced. The diagrams of the error distribution confused me a bit. Should the indication 71% be the indication of the percentile rank? I would also have been very interested to know whether this finding still falls into the area of ​​poor reading spelling. Unfortunately, I did not find any information about this. Then I requested a funding process. I received a proposal in which the funding areas were entered. I accepted this funding plan by clicking on it and 22 received the funding process with details of the funding areas and the associated exercise packages. I downloaded all the exercise packages, which took an hour with the ISDN connection. Unfortunately, I have not found any indication of the quality criteria of the test anywhere. Is the test constructed according to the rules of classical test theory? I would also have been interested in how the program that the learning server works with works. Personal advice from professionally trained staff regarding the performance profile and the funding plan by phone or email was expressly offered to me. According to the performance profile, the following findings emerged: In the basic area, the test person had problems with concentration (perhaps because he felt stressed) and with acoustic differentiation. There are significantly more control errors. He made the most mistakes in the area of ​​words with groups of letters that sounded the same. In summary, it can be stated that most of the spelling problems are no longer present compared to the 4th grade, some of the causes of the reading and spelling weaknesses probably still cause problems occasionally. This concerns above all the recording of spatial relationships and concentration problems. When there is background noise, he still sometimes has problems understanding what is being said. If you speak too quickly, especially when it comes to foreign languages, the recording is sometimes incomplete and the language is a bit unclear. This is where it helps to speak slowly and use a language CD to practice correct pronunciation over and over again. The learning server's funding material is extensive and easy to understand. I think it is very good that it is specially tailored to the needs of the person being tested. This is certainly a great help for the teacher in his work. Those affected can receive further information through advanced training conferences, telephone advice from teachers and parents and through the funding network of the University of Münster. When it comes to support, I think it is very important that a basic vocabulary is built up first, and then the words that are in the school books are practiced. In this way, the children experience small successes over time (when the dictation grade gets a little better), which they urgently need to keep them motivated. 23 7. Educational advice for reading and spelling weaknesses If you have reading and spelling weaknesses, I consider personal educational advice to be essential. What does advice mean? In addition, a classic definition by Dietrich (1983), emphasis by CK: Counseling is at its core that form of an interventional and preventive helping relationship in which a counselor tries to use linguistic communication and on the basis of stimulating and supportive methods within a comparatively short period of time To initiate an active learning process based on cognitive-emotional insight for a disoriented, inadequately stressed or relieved client, in the course of which his willingness to help himself, his ability to control himself and his ability to act can be improved. "(Krause 2003, p.22)" Advice can always being only help for self-help and has the goal of making oneself superfluous. ”(Krause 2003, p.24) The top priority of counseling is voluntariness. One speaks of pedagogical advice when it comes to the design of learning processes. The learning goal is the acquisition of skills to determine the problem, to set achievable goals, to be able to make reflective decisions, to design action plans, to recognize and use resources and to check the effectiveness of actions. (cf. Krause 2003, p. 28) The aim of every consultation is to help solve problems. There is an undesirable initial state, a change is desired and this requires a path that has to be overcome.In professional counseling, there is a plan for the course of the phases, the content and time sections, because this is necessary if the problem is complex, several people are involved and the process takes longer. (cf. Krause 2003, p. 73) When counseling because of an existing reading and spelling weakness, there is an undesirable initial situation, the reading and spelling weakness. A change is desired, if possible the elimination of the reading and spelling weaknesses. In order to be able to determine the problem more precisely, the parents and, if necessary, the pupil are questioned; hearing and vision must be checked. One or more tests will then be performed to pinpoint the cause. The people involved must then be informed in detail about the problem and the support measures to be introduced in a consultation. The funding measures usually extend over a longer period of time, with the support of competent specialists. 24 8. Diagnosis and support for reading and spelling weaknesses in school How should the diagnosis of reading and spelling weaknesses be carried out? The reading and spelling weakness is a partial performance disorder that can have different causes and can be observed in various degrees of severity. A differentiated diagnosis is therefore very important, in which several interdisciplinary specialists should be involved. The quality of the diagnosis crucially depends on whether the right funding is recommended. In most cases, the problem will not be noticed until school is reached, when the children are learning to read and write. "1. Learning to read and write as a task of the school One of the main tasks of the school is to teach students how to read, write and spell. The school must ensure that as many students as possible can meet the basic requirements. For a number of pupils in primary school and also in the types of schools that build on primary school, school success is impaired by difficulties in reading and / or spelling (reading and / or spelling weakness - LRS-, in special cases dyslexia). The following regulations are intended to help prevent or remedy these impairments as far as possible. The aim is to develop the existing talents, to enable the students a school career appropriate to their individual capabilities and to largely remedy any reading and / or spelling difficulties that occur in the course of school with appropriate help. 2. Early detection as a task of the school In the first lesson, the different learning requirements are to be observed and appropriately taken into account in the reading learning process and the acquisition of written language; If necessary, special funding measures can be derived from this. The starting point for the introduction of special support measures is a differentiated description of the German teacher's level of learning in the course of the 1st school year, combined with continuous observation of the learning process from the start. This includes observations on the spoken and written language, cognitive, emotional, social and motor development status as well as the sensory ability of the individual child. If necessary, a counseling teacher working at the school, if necessary a special school teacher, is to be called in. If necessary, the locally responsible school psychological counseling center of the high school authority is to be involved. The school principal is responsible for adhering to and coordinating the procedure. 3. Support measures Support measures for pupils with learning difficulties are more likely to be successful if their causes are known. The determination of the manifestations and the extent of the difficulties, e.g. through error analyzes and standardized tests, should therefore always be supplemented by a clarification of the causes. If there is a presumption of health impairments, the legal guardians are recommended to undergo a medical examination or, with the consent of the parents, to call in the school medical service of the health department. "(Promotion of pupils with difficulties in reading and / or spelling; administrative regulation of the KM of December 10, 1997 , KuU S. 1/1998. This VwV expired on December 31, 2004. The new regulation is intended, KuU S. 25 5/2005. Until then, this regulation must continue to be observed 621) In this administrative regulation, the German teacher is clearly instructed to monitor all of his students in German lessons to see whether they have reading or spelling weaknesses. It is understandable that such a diagnosis is not very easy in a class of 20 to 30 children when the teacher is also teaching and not just observing. Since I wanted a little more information, I called the state education authority. In the following, I would like to reproduce the information I have received as a memory log: All students are tested with the help of a diagnostic picture list (DBL 1). It consists of 24 pictures, for which the corresponding words must be written. The Hamburg writing test is carried out for pupils whose reading and / or spelling skills were consistently rated as “sufficient”. The class conference chaired by the headmaster makes the decision on the individual pupil’s need for support. The school can set up remedial tuition within the total number of hours available, but it does not have to. I could not get any precise information about whether the teachers who give the remedial classes are specially trained. The parents are informed and must agree to their child's participation in remedial classes, if they take place. In the case of students who have been found to have poor reading and / or spelling weaknesses, their spelling skills are not included in the grades. The certificate then contains a note under remarks that a reading and / or spelling weakness was determined and that the German grade was cautiously weighted. If the class conference agrees, the students can be transferred in German despite not having a sufficient grade. You can also attend a secondary school after grade 4, in order to provide the secondary school with information, the primary school offers parents to document their reading and / or spelling weaknesses and the promotional measures carried out on a supplement to the primary school recommendation. So much for the information from the state education authority. It is up to the parents to decide whether they want further diagnostic measures to be carried out and whether or not their child can attend remedial classes, if they are taking place. 26 9. Summary This work should be an attempt to present the very complex problem of diagnosing reading and spelling weaknesses. Funding diagnostics can reveal causes and suggest funding. If possible, the school can offer special lessons. The implementation also depends on the understanding and will of those affected (parents and child) to what extent they want to cope with the problem. You need to learn to understand the problem and have the will to do a lot of extra practice. The process takes a long time and it takes perseverance, which is not always easy. I think it's good that the college of education now offers seminars on reading and spelling difficulties, diagnosis and support. The student teachers have already dealt with the problem and can then identify the problems of the children more quickly and better on duty. The learning server, which I described in the second case, can be of help to the teacher. Parents can, if they wish, have further diagnostic activities carried out, as clearly specified in the regulation. The child can be tested by a counseling teacher at the school or in a listening language center in the counseling center for written language. These special education teachers are experienced in diagnosing reading and spelling difficulties and can make suggestions for individual support. The other tasks then have to be carried out by the school and by the parents. Then a support program could be used that specifically relates to the level of knowledge of the individual child, which I think is very good. In the context of this work, I only looked at the learning server funding program, but there are also other funding programs that are suitable. In summary, it can be stated that the partial performance disorder reading and spelling weaknesses can have many causes and different degrees of severity. Through diagnostics, the problem and the level of performance can be precisely determined, which is a prerequisite for the appropriate support. 27 10. Bibliography 1. Beckenbach (2000): Reading and spelling weaknesses, diagnosing and treating. Lengerich, Berlin, Riga, Rome, Vienna, Zagreb: Pabst Science Publishers, 2nd edition 2. Büttner, Sauter, Schneider (2005): Empirical school and teaching research, contributions from educational psychology, educational science and specialist didactics. Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers 3rd Union of Education and Science Baden-Württemberg (2007): GEW Yearbook for Teachers - Handbook of School and Service Law in Baden-Württemberg. 26th year; Edition 2007. Stuttgart: Süddeutscher Pädagogischer Verlag 4. Ingenkamp, ​​Lissmann (2005): Textbook of pedagogical diagnostics. Weinheim and Basel: Beltz Verlag UTB, 5th edition 5th Klicpera / Schabmann, Gasteiger-Klicpera (2003): Dyslexia. Munich, Basel: Reinhardt Verlag UTB 6. Krause, Fittkau, Fuhr, Thiel (2003): Pedagogical advice. Basics and practical application. Paderborn, Munich, Vienna, Zurich: Ferdinand Schöningh Verlag 7. Prof. Dr. Schönweiss, Friedrich; Schönweiss, Petra (2007): Handbook for spelling promotion. Basics and funding practice. Donauwörth: Auer Verlag 28

© Copyright 2021 ExpyDoc