Where is god statue in Priff runic landscape

about Durer





Published in 2000 by Garland Publishing, Inc. A member of the Taylor & Francis Group 29 West 35th Street New York, NY 10001 This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledges collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk. Copyright 2000 by Jane Campbell Hutchison All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hutchison, Jane Campbell. Albrecht Drer: a guide to research / Jane Campbell Hutchison. p. cm. (Artist resource manuals; v. 3) (Garland reference library of the humanities; vol. 2177) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8153-2114-7 (Print Edition): (alk. Paper) 1. Drer, Albrecht, 14711528 Criticism and interpretation Bibliography. I. Title. II. Series. III. Series: Garland reference library of the humanities; vol. 2177 Z826 .H88 2000 [N6888.D8] 016.760092dc21 00025906 ISBN 0-203-80059-1 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN 0-203-80062-1 (Adobe eReader format)


Foreword and User Notes Series Editors Foreword Honestly kept nah und feren: Five Centuries of Drer Reception Albrecht Drer (14711528) in German History Annotated Bibliography The Drer House Chronology (after Matthias Mende) Chronology Location Guide Index Persons, Places, and Works of Art Mentioned in the Bibliography

v vi 1 21 266 271 277 286

Foreword and User Notes

The present volume supplements, but by no means replaces the excellent DrerBibliographie published by Matthias Mende in honor of the artists five hundredth birth anniversary in 1971 (q.v.). Since that time some of Drers lost watercolors have been found, two of his portraits have been returned to the Weimar Museum, and two of the three religious works from the Alte Pinakothek, attacked by a vandal in 1988, have been restored. During this time the oeuvre of Hans Hofmann has grown, while the number of Drers nature studies has grown smaller. Changes of ownership, physical condition, attribution, and questions of the artists reception have been of primary importance here. Only the most basic items from the pre-1971 literature have been included here, together with certain works of historic interest, and works published in the United States that were not available to Mende. Bearing in mind that some users of this work may be curators whose own specialties may lie in other areas than German art, generous summaries of the most important works are given; These are intended merely as guides to the literature, and should in no case be regarded as substitutes for the original documents. The serious researcher also will need ready access, at a minimum, to Mendes bibliography, as well as to the corpus of Drers written work edited by Hans Rupprich (Drer's written estate, q.v.); Fedja Anzelewsky's catalog of the paintings (2nd edition, 1990, q.v.); one of the several catalogs of the artists prints, such as those by Josef Meder, Karl-Adolph Knappe, or Walter Strausss volume for The Illustrated Bartsch series (q.v.), each of which is useful for different reasons; Friedrich Winkler's catalog of the drawings, or Walter Strauss's more inclusive but controversial one. The best single work on Drers critical and literary reception is Jan Bialostockis Drer and His Critics (qv), while the final chapter of my Albrecht Drer: A Biography (The Celebrated Albrecht Drer) summarizes the artists posthumous public reception as reflected in the various celebrations organized to mark his birth and death anniversaries. Jane Campbell Hutchison Madison, Wisconsin July 9, 1999

Series Editors Foreword

Our ideas about the past are the results of an immense cooperative effort. (E.H. GOMBRICH, THE STORY OF ART) Each generation sees any important artist differently. The Garland series Artist Resource Manuals offers a new kind of reference guide that traces the history of the critical reception of major artists by tracing the literary evidence. Collecting and presenting the facts on how artists were received and how their oeuvre was perceived will provide the foundations for a better understanding of the masters. Each volume has as its core a historical essay or reception history that deals with the fame and fortune of the artist from his or her own time through successive ages to the present. This is followed by a critical annotated bibliography that comprises a listing of essential primary sources as well as selections from the secondary literature. Primary sources may include the artists programmatic, theoretical, and autobiographical writings. Secondary sources include monographs as well as oeuvre and exhibition catalogs. Auction sale catalogs, commemorative volumes of collected essays (Festschriften), museum bulletins and yearbooks, and learned papers published in scholarly journals, as well as occasional articles published in newspapers and reflections in other creative media, including those of popular culture, are given due consideration commensurate with their importance. The present volume differs from the two in the series that precede it in that it is both an independent reference tool and the supplement to an earlier work which it brings up-to-date. Coincident with the worldwide quincentennial celebration of Albrecht Drers birth, Matthias Mende published his comprehensive bibliography in 1971 (qv) With the two earlier bibliographies by Singer * and Bohatta, ** published in 1928 on the occasion of the four hundredth anniversary of the artists death , Mendes work shares a major shortcoming of all occasional publications of this sort: it misses the avalanche of new


publications that the event itself engenders. Jane Hutchison's book fulfills the essential function of closing that gap. Wolfgang M. Friday

* Hans Wolfgang Singer, attempt at a third bibliography (Strasbourg: Heitz, 1928). ** Hanns Bohatta, attempt of a bibliography of the art theoretical works of Albrecht Drers (Vienna: Gilhofer & Ranschburg, 1928).


Honestly held near and far: Five Centuries of Drer Reception

Albrecht Drer (14711528) in German History

In 1526, two years before Drers death, Beatus Rhenanus (ca. 1485 1547) in his notes on Plinys Historia Naturalis pointed with pride to the fact that as in days of the Ancients Germany now excelled in the visual arts that bear witness to a nations honor, and that first among German artists was Albrecht Drer.1 Furthermore, noting emphatically that honor nourishes the arts, he looked forward to the day when German art would be praised as highly by contemporary writers as Greek and Roman art had been in ancient times . Already in 1505 Jakob Wimpfeling (14501528), the first German historian, had reported that pictures by Drer (he seems to have meant prints) were being marketed in Italy, where they were as highly prized as paintings by Parrhasius and Apelles. 2 Drers contracts with two sales agents charged with selling his prints abroad have been preserved in Nurembergs Stadtarchiv, 3 lending a certain credibility to this statementalthough, of course, no work by either Parrhasius nor Apelles has survived. Like Beatus Rhenanus, Wimpfeling was an Alsatian living in Strasbourg at the time of writing; it should perhaps come as no great surprise that the first stirrings of nationalist sentiment should have been expressed by writers living at the westernmost edge of German-speaking territory, on the left bank of the Rhine, where the Holy Roman Empire was bounded by France. Wimpfeling, a former professor of poetry at Heidelberg, was a friend of the arch-humanist Conrad Celtis (14591508), Germanys first native-born Imperial poet laureate and a friend of both Drer and Willibald Pirckheimer, His address at the University of Ingolstadt ( August 31, 1492) had been a call for a new German culture. Celtis challenged his countrymen that, having taken over the rule of the Italians and having cast off your vile barbarity, [you] must strive after the Roman arts. Take away that infamy of the Germans among the Greek, Latin and Hebrew writers who ascribe to us drunkenness, barbarism, cruelty and whatever is bestial and foolish. Beatus Rhenanus, the man whom Erasmus of Rotterdam called his alter ego, was also in correspondence with Pirckheimer, as well as with the Augsburg classicist Konrad Peutinger, the Nuremberg theologian-poet Johann Cochlus, and Benedictus Chelidonius (n Schwalbe), author of the Latin poetry that served


as text to Drers Marienleben. All were personal friends of the artist. The Reformer Philipp Melanchthon (14971560), founder of Nurembergs new humanistic Gymnasium (1526) and the owner of a complete collection of Drers graphic art, characterized his friends work as comparable to the highest form of rhetoricrich in variety and classical allusions4while the Imperial poet and knight-errant Ulrich von Hutten (14881523) noted in 1518 that Drer had earned the respect of the Italians, who do not easily praise a German, whether because of envyor because of the old idea that we are stupid and good-for-nothing Indeed, an unflattering image of the Germans as drunkards and savages pervaded both ancient and modern literature written in Italy. Tacitus, whose newly recovered Germania Celtis had edited for publication, had claimed that the ancient Germans slept until a late hour of the day, that they went everywhere armed to the teeth, and that to pass an entire night in drinking disgrace [d] no one.6 Moreover, the Italians were not alone in taking a dim view of the Germans, for the furor teutonicus had been reviled during the Middle Ages by even such erstwhile fellow barbarians as the English and French.7 John of Salisbury, the twelfth- century Bishop of Chartres, had stigmatized the Germans as both bruti (unreasoning) and impetuosi (lacking in control), two failings that Drers art seems almost deliberately calculated to negate, just as his nearly superhuman productivity ran directly counter to the popular stereotype of the Teutonic barbarian as a pathological wastrel. Drers early and short-lived activity as creator of engravings and drawings of recher subjects from ancient literaturedespite his own minimal formal educationis proof of his compliance with Celtiss plan to cultivate and publicize the arts in Germany, as are his landscape watercolors of the Nuremberg area dating from the time of Celtiss Norimberga (mid-1490s), and his contracts with two traveling sales agents to market his prints in foreign lands. 8 If more proof were needed, it is supplied by the inscription on the artists famous Self Portrait of 1500 ( Munich, Alte Pinakothek), composed by Celtiss personal secretary, as well as by the flattering laudatio that Celtis himself penned in Drers honor: To the Painter Albrecht Drer of Nuremberg. Albrecht, most famous painter in German lands Where the Frankish town raises its lofty head up to the stars, You represent to us a second Phidias, a second Apelles And others whom ancient Greece admires for their sovereign hand. Neither Italy nor versatile France has seen his equal Nor will anyone find him in the Spanish domain. You leave the Hungarians behind as well as the dwellers within the German confines And those who dwell around the Black Sea9


The Nuremberg lawyer Christoph Scheurl (14811552) 10 who was related to Drers clients the Tucher family, had been a student at the university of Bologna during the artists second trip to Italy. He reported that in Venice as well as in Bologna Drer had earned the soubriquet the second Apelles. He further claimed that, rivaling Parrhasius, whose painting of grapes was said to have deceived the birds, one of Drers self portraits had been kissed by the artists dog, who mistook it for his masteran anecdote first reported by Celtis. 11 Scheurl, whose nephew Albrecht was Drers godson, went on to quote three flattering poems in praise of Drer penned by the wandering north-Italian poet Ricardus Sbrulius (Riccardo Sbroglio), who not only compared him to Apelles but declared him worthy of Olympus. 12 Sbrulius had met Drer in Italy in 1506, before leaving to become a member of the faculty of Wittenbergs new university in 1508. The Silesian neo-Latin poet Caspar Ursinus Velius (aka Kaspar Bernhard, ca. 14931539) penned epigrams in praise of Drers Adam and Eve (presumably the 1504 engraving (M.1) 13 Erasmus of Rotterdam compared the artist to Pamphilus, the ancient Macedonian mathematician in a Latin dialogue of 1528, declaring also that he had bested Apelles by his ability to work only in black lines, and repeatedly referred to him as our Apelles in his correspondence with Pirckheimer after 1523.14 Drers death in 1528 prompted a veritable avalanche of obituary poetry written by his humanist friends, as well as a letter of condolence to Pirckheimer from Martin Luther, 15 who had received a gift of prints from the artist and was aware of Drers avid interest in his own early pamphlets. Three days after the burial a belated attempt was made by Nurembergs humanists to immortalize Drers face and one of his hands in plaster casts, in imitation of the Italian vogue for death masks. 16 A lock of the artists hair, clipped and sent to his former journeyman and friend Hans Baldung, whom Drer had called Grien Hans (1484/14851545) was treasured as a holy relic by a succession of artists ever afterward until 1873 when it was donated to the Vienna Academy, where it remains today. 17 The 1532 / 1534 Latin edition of Drers Four Books of Human Proportion was prefaced with a full-dress biography of the artist written by the Bamberg philologist Joachim Camerarius (Kammermeister) (1500 1574), a colleague of Luthers and Philipp Melanchthons on the Wittenberg faculty and Melanchthons choice as Rector and Professor of Greek at the new Nuremberg Gymnasium (15261532) .18 Camerarius praised Drers own elegantly proportioned body and Grecian nose as well as his high moral character, highly placed p atrons, and mathematical and scientific ability and his matchless ability to recreate the effects of nature. 19 Albrecht Drer is still acknowledged to be, not simply first among the Germans, but one of a half-dozen of the world's most renowned artistsnone of whom was more acutely aware than he of the power of history and of the press. In 1498, with the aid of his godfathers typefaces, he became the first artist in


history to act as his own publisher. None has been more widely and consistently admired, quoted and copied than Drer, whose lifes work has never suffered the periods of critical neglect that at one time or another befell even such masters as Raphael and Rembrandt, both of whom owned works by Drer. His contemporary Raphael (14831520), who is alleged by Ludvico Dolce to have kept a Drer drawing taped to his wall, 20 was idolized throughout the seventeenth through the early nineteenth centuries, when art academies were in fashion, but conversely has always been reviled by subsequent anti-academics. Rembrandt (16061669), who owned an edition of the Four Books of Human Proportion and clearly was influenced by a number of Drers prints, such as his woodcut of he Death of the Virgin, was already being severely criticized within a generation of his own death for his supposed failure to finish many of his late paintings, as well as for such supposed ethical lapses as having made small alterations to his etching plates in order to sell old prints as new ones.21 Rembrandt posthumously became a hero in the eyes of Goethes generation, where he was compared to Shakespeare in his ability to deal with reality and the human psyche, but Goethe and his friends also were avid collectors of Drers prints. Carl Neumann, whose Rembrandt monograph of 1902 extolled Rembrandt as der Maler der Seele (soul painter), 22 also held a sympathetic view of Drer, whom he classed with Dante, Leonardo, and, of all people, St. Francis of Assisi, as nourished by the hearts blood and the spiritual soul of the Middle Ages an accolade that surely would have surprised the artist. Far from steeping himself in the hearts blood of the Middle Ages, of course, Drer had deliberately sacrificed years of his creative life in order almost singlehandedly to bring the Renaissance to Germany. The saintly paradigm does have a precedent of sorts in the writings of no less a person than Cardinal Gabriele Paleotti (15221597), Archbishop of Bologna, 23 who helped shape the Counter-Reformations position on the uses of the visual arts. In his chapter, Examples of some painters, sculptors and other image-makers who have been accepted among the saints and blessed, or who had the repute of the most exemplary life, the Cardinal includes Drer the German painter and geometrician in the company of Pietro Cavallini and two artists in holy orders, Fra Angelico and Fra Bartolommeo. Paleotti was particularly gratified that the German artist (whose Lutheran sympathies were probably unknown to him) had refused to stoop to the manufacture of pornographic prints, unlike many other engravers of his day and later. Indeed, Drers moral rectitude was such that his graphic works were recommended by Francisco Pacheco (15711654) author of the Arte de la Pintura (1649) and censor of paintings for the Spanish Inquisition. The odor of sanctity was destined to escalate in certain of the religious paintings of the seventeenth-century Drer Renaissance, where copies of the Christ-like 1500 Self Portrait sometimes were used as depictions of the Savior himself, 24 and further in the quasireligious Drer festivals of the early nineteenth century, when the artists biography would be illustrated in a series of


Christianized typological parallels, and when specially composed oratorios were sung at his grave on Easter morning in Nurembergs Cemetery of St. John. 25 Drers graphic art played an important role in the training of young artists in both Europe and the New World for centuries to come . Giorgio Vasari, the first foreign author to publish a comprehensive discussion of Drers work26 particularly admired the Prodigal Son and Meerwunder engravingsalthough he mistakenly declared their creator to have been Flemish. He also told the unsubstantiated story of Drers vain attempt to obtain a restraining order from the Venetian Senate against Marcantonio Raimondis copperplate copies of his Life of the Virgin and other woodcut seriesa case that resulted only in the prohibition against Raimondis use of Drers monogram on such pirated copies.In Latin America his prints, due to the endorsements of Paleotti and Pacheco, were sent to accompany Spanish missionaries. Drers paintings were less influential, perhaps in part because so many had been acquired by Rudolph II and the Archduke Maximilian, but also because their lack of idealism made them less attractive to Italian, English and French collectors who preferred Italian works. In those areas where his paintings were not found, however, the artists fame was kept alive by his stature as scientist and mathematician, and he was considered Leonardo da Vincis equal in such matters. Sebastiano Serlios Book IV: On the Five Roman Orders (Venice, 1537) was based on Drers Fortification of Stett, Schloss und Flecken (1527: Treatise on Fortification), the first book on architecture ever to be published with illustrations.27 To the Milanese theoretician Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo (1538 1600), whose work on human proportion was heavily indebted to Drer, he was il gran Druvido Alberto Durero, who could have become the best painter in the world if only he had been privileged to study in Italy with Raphael .28 Lomazzo singled out for special praise the German artists sure mathematical procedure and his knowledge of sciences, which he possessed to the highest degreeand which must accompany art and must be connected with it. Drers method for constructing a regular pentagon inspired a host of Italian mathematicians, and was the subject of a special treatise by Pietro Antonio Cataldi of Bologna (1570), 29 cited later with respect by both Galileo and Johannes Kepler. Lomazzos treatise reappeared in the English translation by Richard Haydocke (Oxford, 1598), and was an inspiration to the Elizabethan miniaturist Nicholas Milliard, who composed his own Treatise concerning the Arte of Limning (ca.1600) .30 Carel van Mander (15481606) , who had traveled widely in Italy and Germany before settling in Haarlem, was the first to publish a list of Drers paintings (he declared the artists woodcuts and engravings too well known among both artists and collectors to need enumerating) .31 He had seen fourteen of the paintings, including the Adoration of the Magi (1504) now in the Uffizi; the Virgin with the Siskin (1506: Berlin); the Adam and Eve (1507: Madrid); the Landauer Altarpiece (1511: Vienna); the Heller Altarpiece (commissioned 1508: destroyed: then still in the Dominican monastery in Frankfurt); the idealized


portraits of Charlemagne and Sigismund (Nuremberg); the so-called Four Apostles (Munich); the Self Portrait of 1500 (1526: Munich); and a portrait of the artists mother, identified by the late Lotte Brand Philip with the painting of a heretofore unknown woman in Nurembergs Germanisches Nationalmuseum. 32 He also mentioned a painting of Lucretia in the collection of Melchior Wijntgis in Middelburg, which seems not to be identifiable with the one now in Munich (date 1518: Alte Pinakothek). In Chapter 10 (On Clothes and Drapery) of the theoretical section of his book, he praised Drers engraved drapery for variety of fabrics and excellent effects of lighting and of drapery in motion. Van Manders book appeared at the apogee of what Hans Kauffmann was later to identify as the Drer Renaissance, 33 when such influential collectors as the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II and the Elector Maximilian I of Bavaria were assembling the works that today form the nucleii of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna and the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. Joachim von Sandrart (16061688) in his Teutschen Akademie (1675: Nuremberg) relates how Rudolph, having purchased the Feast of the Rose Garlands from the church of St. Bartolommeo in Venice, ordered that it be carefully wrapped in rugs, padded with cotton- wool and baled in waterproof waxed cloth before being carried on poles by a group of strong men all the way to the Imperial Residence in Prague in order to avoid its being jolted, shaken or injured on a cart. Rudolph also acquired the Landauer Altarpiece (Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum), the Adam and Eve panels (Madrid, Prado) and the majority of the watercolors (Vienna, Albertina). Rudolph's obsession with Drers work was exceeded only by that of the Elector, Maximilian I of Bavaria (15731651), head of the Catholic League in the Thirty Years War. From the Dominican cloister in Frankfurt he purchased the Heller Altar (unfortunately destroyed later in a palace fire); from the Imhoff collection in Nuremberg the Glimm Lamentation; and the Paumgartner Altarpiece from the church of St. Catherine. He also acquired the so-called Four Apostles from the City Hall, ordering that the extensive Biblical quotations in Luthers German be sawed off and returned to Nuremberg with the replacement copies of the paintings. Among other purchases, some of them also destroyed in the fire, he acquired the Hercules and the Stymphalian Birds (Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum). As head of the Catholic League, he was in the fortunate position of being able to exert political pressure on Protestant Nuremberg to part with its treasures. In another case Field Marshall Johann Graf von Tilly (15591632) and the Bavarian Commissioner of War Hans Christoph von Reupp were pressed into service to obtain Drers St. Jerome from the Marienkirche in Stendal (Brandenburg) for Maximilian; unfortunately it was sent by supply train by way of Hesse and was lost in transit. In 1681 Sandrart purchased the tomb in Nurembergs Cemetery of St. John that had originally held the artists body, renovating the original Latin epitaph composed by Willibald Pirckheimer (Whatever was mortal of Albrecht Drer is covered by this stone), and augmenting it with a coat -of-arms and a new and


more florid inscription comprised of a verse in German followed by a Latin eulogy: Here you rest artistically more than a great man! Nobody has done the same to you in many art. The earth was painted, the sky has you now; you now paint holy there at the place of God The building, painting and painting art They call you patron and now put on you the laurel crown in death. Rest here, oh artist prince Thou more than worthy man! In mastering all arts None equalled thee. Thy work on earth complete In heaven is thy home; Thou paintest, saintly now, Beside Gods sacred throne, The builders, sculptors, painters Call thee Patron (saint) In death they now award thee The (artists) laurel crown. Vixit Germaniae suae Decus ALBERTVS DVRERVS Artium Lumen, Sol Artificium Urbis Patr. Nor. Ornamentum Pictor, Chalcographus, Sculptor Sine Exemplo, quia Omniscius Dignus Inventus Exteris, Quern imitandum censerent. Magnes Magnatum, Cos ingeniorum Post Sesqui Seculi Requiem Qui Parem non habuit Solus Heic cubare jubetur


Tu flores sparge Viator. A.R.S. MDCLXXXI J.De S. The glory of Germany is dead. ALBERTUS DURERUS Light of the arts, Sun of the artists Ornament of Noris, his native town, Painter, Graphic artist, Sculptor Without precedent because omniscient, Found worthy by foreigners who Recommend to imitate him. Magnet of Magnates, grindstone for talents, After one hundred fifty years No one having been equal to him He must repose here alone. Traveler, strew flowers. In the year of Salvation 1681 J.D S. In lamenting that the artist must repose here alone, Sandrart, who had moved to Nuremberg only in 1674, presumably was unaware that Albrecht Drer no longer reposed there at all; his grave had been cleared of its original contents after 1550, by which time both his own family and that of his wife Agnes Frey Drer had died out, and had subsequently been recycled to hold the remains of various assorted clergymen from Nurembergs Heilig-Geist- Hospital. In any case, Sandrart donated the renovated tomb to Nurembergs newly founded Academy of ArtGermanys first such institution. (The grave was destined to be opened yet again in 1811this time in the name of phrenology, in the hope of retrieving his skull as palpable evidence of his genius. Regrettably, however, the tomb yielded up only a recently deceased engraver named Brenstecher and a heap of miscellaneous skulls of assorted sizes, and so was quietly closed up again.) Sandrart, who was familiar with the collections of Maximilian and that assembled by Rudolph II among others, devoted an entire chapter of his Teutsche Academie to Drer, whom he considered one of the founding fathers (with Michael Wolgemut, Martin Schongauer, and Israel van Meckenem) of German art, and included in his book a portrait of the artist engraved by Philipp Kilian after his (Sandrarts) own design. His commentary on Drers life owes much to Van Mander, Vasari, and Ridolfi, but his first hand knowledge of the oeuvre is


quite extensive. He also was the first to publish the Family Chronicle that Drer had written in 1524, using his fathers notes. Although he was highly respected everywhere for his moral probity and his theoretical publications, Drers reputation as a painter was never as high in France and England as in Germany. Roger de Piles (1635 1709), himself a painter / engraver / theoretician, championed color as superior to line, and awarded Drer a niggardly eight for composition on a scale of one to twenty; tens for both drawing and color; and an eight for expression (or roughly the same scores as he gave to Michelangelo) .34 Drer was, however, one of only two German artists whom he thought worth rating at all, the other being Hans Holbein. As the two hundredth anniversary of the artists death approached, Henrich Conrad Arend (16921738), a Lutheran pastor in the Harz mountain village of Grund bei Clausthal, published Das Gedchtnis der Ehren Albrecht Drers (1728: Goslar, Johann Christoph Knig), the first monograph on Drer, It was dedicated to Ludwig Rudolph, Duke of Braunschweig and Lneburg, whose father, Anton Ulrich, had amassed a major collection of Drers prints. 35 Although his biographical chapters owe much to the literature already in print, Arend had made a great effort, with the limited means of a pastor, to see as many original works by Drer as possible. These, naturally, were prints and drawings, some of which he had painstakingly copied, since the great princely (and Catholic) collections of paintings and watercolors were not open to him. In 1778 Goethe's friend Heinrich Sebastian Hsgen (17451807), the current owner not only of the famous lock of Drers hair, but of an important collection of his works on paper (101 engravings plus the great woodcut books and seventy of the single-sheets) , compiled the first catalog raisonn of the prints.36 This was to be tremendously influential, and would remain the definitive work until the publication of the seventh volume of Adam Bartschs Le peintre-graveur (Vienna, 1808) and Joseph Hellers Das Leben und die Works by Albrecht Drers, in two volumes (Bamberg: EFKunz, 1827). Arends monograph was followed in 1779 by Christoph Gottlieb von Murrs publication of Drers Netherlandish travel diary, and later by his edition of the letters from Venice to Pirckheimer (1748). 37 Three years earlier he had recognized and described Drers iron etchings in his Journal zur Art history and general literature. The eighteenth century also produced Johann Heinrich Merck's Some Attempts to Rescue Drers Memory from the Legend Created by Art Literature, in Wielands Der Teutsche Merkur, 3 (1780), 3ff.) , a serious attempt to define the artists style. Merck (17411791), who belonged to the circle of Goethe, Herder, and Wieland, was one of the first to draw distinctions between genuine Drer prints and the many copies and forgeries in circulation; he was employed in Weimar by Duke Carl August and Duchess Ana Amalia as purchasing agent for their collection of prints and drawings. Merck also made the distinction between features of Drers personal style and those common to the


period in which he worked, pointing out also that there are various traditions and local schools, none of which should be judged better or worse than any other. Wilhelm Heinses (17461803) fictitious Ardinghello, 38 the first artist to be featured as the hero of a novel, was eloquent in the praise of Drer, and also endorsed the idea that every folk and every climate has its own beauty. Stopping in Nuremberg on his way from Weimar to Italy, Johann Gottfried Herder (17441803) wrote enthusiastically to his wife about the works by Drer that he had seen there (which included the copies of the Four Apostles by Georg Gaertner and that of the Adam and Eve by Juveneel) .39 Johann Kaspar Lavater (17411801), the Zurich pastor whose essay on physiognomy as an index to character and genius led to the abortive attempt to recover Drers skull for posterity (1811), devoted special price to the Four Apostles, which he erroneously assumed to have been commissioned as an altarpiece for a great church or a rich cloister. 40 Goethe, whose publications contain many references to Drer throughout his career, had high praise for Drers wood-carved manliness as antidote for the artificiality of his French Rococo contemporaries. Perhaps most poignant, however, was his identification with Drers situation as a German in Italy during his own first Italian journey (17861788), which he undertook with Christoph Gottlieb von Murrs editions of Drers travel diary (1779) and letters from Venice (1781) in hand.41 Goethe, in self-imposed exile from Weimar politics, felt a kinship with Drer, who had so reveled in being treated as a gentleman in Venice and Bologna, feeling himself insufficiently appreciated at home in Germany. The liberal publicist Christian Daniel Schubart (17391791), who had been driven out of Augsburg by the Jesuits, recalled in his memoirs written in prison in the Hohen Asperg that as a schoolboy he had wept at the grave of Drer, and elsewhere cited him as the father of German painting, who had been guided only by his own genius and not by study of the Antique. Calling him the Michelangelo of the Germans, he credited Drer with having invented the arts of woodcut and engraving, and also with having written books.42 Nuremberg had always been a mecca for travelers, as it lay at the center of the Holy Roman Empire at the crossroads of the great trade routes from north, south, east, and west, but the late eighteenth century brought visitors for cultural more than commercial reasons. Most momentous among them were the young Wilhelm Wackenroder (1773 1798) and his friend Ludwig Tieck (17731853), who, apparently having neglected to fortify themselves with any of the three eighteenth-century monographs on Drer and unaware of the vogue among the Strassburg Strmer und Drnger for collecting his graphic art, were responsible for spreading the extraordinary notion that Albrecht Drer had been forgotten.43 Wackenroders Ehrengedchtnisz our venerable ancestor Albrecht Drers from an art-loving monastery brother44 and the more widely circulated Herzensergiessungen eines art-loving monastery brothers (Berlin, 1797) changed the View of Drer from that of an artist who, if he had only been born in Italy could have been truly great, to that of an artist truly great precisely


because he was German. Wackenroders Drer also was the teacher of the title character in Tiecks Franz Sternbalds Wanderings (1798). Johann Domenico Fiorillo (1748 1821) published the first volume of his monumental history of the drawing arts in Germany and the United Netherlands in the same year, with the help of his friend Wilhelm Schlegel. Drer, who appears in volume two (Hannover, 1817), receives high price indeed. Tieck and the Schlegel brothers were prominent among the sponsors of the Romantic movement, a development that the post-Italian Goethe deplored for its crypto-Catholic and monastery brotherizing, star balancing mischief. But for Friedrich Schlegel, Drer was the Shakespeare, or, if you prefer, the Jakob Bhrne of painting.45 His brother August Wilhelm was the first to note the artists transitional position, his art born in a Catholic mind, although he himself was devoted to Luther's undertakings war but also spread abroad Pirckheimers opinion that Agnes Drers greed had caused her husband to die of over-work. 46 DRERFEIERN: THE CELEBRATED ALBRECHT DRER The failure of the War for Independence (18131815), when the Congress of Vienna had dashed the hopes of German liberals for autonomous government after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, was a contributing factor in the establishment of the custom of celebrating birth and death anniversaries of Germanys cultural heroes, a practice that still endures. In part, too, these celebrations helped to compensate for the secularization of the calendar, with its resultant loss of many religious holidays. An annual Albrecht Drer Day, like the feast day of a saint, was observed by German artists from 1815 until the end of the nineteenth century, with tri-through quincentennial celebrations of his birth and death dates reaching national and even international proportions. Although anniversary observances also would be held in memory of Luther, Goethe, Schiller, and others, Drer was the eldest hero to be so honored. His Christ like Self Portrait of 1500 (Munich), and the existence of such material remains as his house, tomb, and lock of hair lent themselves admirably to the establishment of his cult, the logical consequence of Wackenroders sacramental view of art. It was the expatriate Nazarenes who held the first Drerfeier, in Peter Corneliuss room in their headquarters at the former monastery of San Isidoro in Rome (May 20, 1815). The affair, which had been suggested by the newest member of the brotherhood, and its one veteran of the War of Independence, JEScheffer von Leonhardshoff, is fully described in a letter from Friedrich Overbeck to Joseph Sutter, dated July 17. The ceremony took place in front of a portrait of the artist (apparently an engraving), which was surrounded by a thick oak wreathone of the most familiar symbols of the War for Independence. Inserted into the wreath were the tools of the various arts that Drer practiced,


and on a table below the arrangement lay the best of his engravings and woodcuts that we had all collected. One of their number read from a biography of the artist to the great joy and edification of all. Then, to the tinkle of glasses, they resolved to celebrate the occasion every year, to kindle inspiration in German hearts anewas well as to stimulate a new German art.47 Establishment of a new German art, of course, what exactly the cause to which Drer had devoted a singularly generous proportion of his working life. Far from keeping his own hard-won knowledge of Renaissance perspective and human proportion to himself, he set out to publish this material in German to make it readily available to younger artists both present and future.Although the Tyrolean artist Michael Pacher clearly had mastered linear perspective while Drer was still a child, he kept the secret within his own workshop in Bruneck, and it followed him to the grave in 1498. Leon Battista Alberti, who died in 1472 when Drer was one year old, had written the first modern treatise on painting as early as 1436. It was circulated only in manuscript form to a limited circle of readers even after the invention of printing from movable type, however, and was published only in 1540, when Drers theoretical works had already been on the market for a dozen years. Drers Unterweysung der Measurement and Vier Bcher von Menschlicher Proportion (both Nuremberg, Hieronymus Andreae), which appeared in 1525 and 1528 respectively, were the first such works published in the vernacular, and the original German editions were quickly republished in French, Italian, English and Spanish translations. (An unpublished Portuguese translation also was made.) Albertis information on color in the De pictura was inaccurate from the start, since the author was a dilettante rather than a painter, and his mathematics became outdated rather quickly, but Drers publications simply gained in interest for such later mathematicians as Johannes Kepler, because some of the constructions he included were not treated elsewhere in the professional literature of geometry. 48 Drer had probably been inspired by the pioneering mathematical publications of Matthus Roriczer (1486 and ca.1498), who in his youth had worked on the church of St. Lorenz in Nuremberg and had been the first to make public the secret knowledge of the Bauhtte. 49 After 1509, of course, Drer had become the neighbor and friend of the priest at St. Johns Church , Johannes Werner (14681522), the mathematician who pioneered the study of conic sections, who wrote his groundbreaking treatise on the subject between 1514 and 1522, using the scie ntific library of his former mentor, the astronomer Bernhard Walther, which was still shelved in Walthers house after Drer purchased it in 1509. The equivalent of a modern research institute, this library, which had been bequeathed to the city of Nuremberg, remained open to the scientific community until 1523, when the city fathers decided to liquidate the collection.50 A feature of Drers uniqueness is the affection with which he has been viewed by generation after generation of younger artists. This has more to do with his sense of mission and civic responsibility than even with his remarkable


technical skill. His generosity of spirit and commitment to the future education and well-being of young German apprentices, and thereby to the betterment of Germany's cultural reputation is made clear in the dedication page from the 1525 edition of The Manual of Measurement. In it he points to the art of measurement, or proportion, as the foundation of all painting, and criticizes the current apprenticeship system as without real foundation other than what they learn by daily usage. Realizing that this is the fault of the master painters rather than of the apprentices themselves, he declares that he has decided to provide to all those who are eager to become artists a starting point and a source for learning about measurement with ruler and compass His unpublished Notes for a further book, to be titled Speiss fr Malerknaben (Food for Young Painters), reveal that he had planned to give advice on treating apprentices with kindness so that they would retain the pleasure of learning, placing them in pleasant and quiet living quarters , and providing for medical help and musical antidotes to melancholy as needed.51 His concern for the welfare of young artists bore fruit when, as part of the celebration of the three hundredth anniversary of his death (1828), the first museum devoted entirely to modern art was founded in Nuremberg, and has occasioned the exhibition of works by living artists created in his honor as a regular feature of Drer festivals in Germany. Drers house by the Tiergartner Tor, now maintained as a museum, owns a large and growing collection of such works. 52 Drer was the first, as well as the eldest, artist to have a publicly subscribed monument featuring a full-length portrait erected in his honor (Christian Daniel Rauchs bronze, commissioned in 1828 for the rechristened Albrecht-Drer-Platz in Nuremberg.) He also was the first northern artist whose house and tomb were restored in the name of historic preservation. And he is certainly the only artist to have been honored by art historians with his own eponymous epochthe Drerzeitand to have undergone a personal Renaissance fifty years after his death.53 He clearly holds the world record for the number of societies, Bndes, and Vereine named in his honor. 54 He became a cult object for the Romantic age, when his Melencolia I was particularly popular in England and France, serving as a source of inspiration for William Blake, Alexander Pope, James Thompson, Theophile Gauthier, Victor Hugo, and Grard de Nerval, among others. 55 In Germany, however, the Knight, Death, and Devil became much more famous, and had more sinister offspring in the writings of Friedrich de la Motte-Fouqu, 56 Friedrich Nietzsche, 57 Ernst Bertram, 58 and Momme Nissen (Drer als Fhrer, in Der Kunstwart 17 (1904), 93ff.). A peculiarly saber-rattling Drer had already begun to emerge with the Prussian victory over the French at Sedan in 1871, when the cultural hero was dubbed the most German of German artists, and the corollary to this Second Reich Drer included anti-German sentiments that were to linger in western Europe following both world wars. Drer Year 1928, however, thanks to the Spirit of Locarno and to the efforts of Nurembergs liberal Mayor, Hermann Luppe, produced in Nurembergs