S enteritidis causes what disease armadillos do
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10.1016 / B978-3-437-58122-9.00001-7
Pseudomembranous necrotizing colitis (pseudomembranous colitis) caused by Clostridium difficile during antibiotic therapy
The β-hemolysis (complete hemolysis) of obligately pathogenic A-streptococci can be demonstrated by culturing on blood-containing culture media.
Angina tonsillaris (lacunaris)
Hand, foot and mouth disease. a Blisters on the hands. b Blisters on the feet. c Enanthem with aphthae in the throat.
Confluent, small-spotted scarlet fever rash
The scarlet fever rash spares the area around the mouth (perioral pallor).
Deep red strawberry or raspberry tongue in scarlet fever
Coarse lamellar flaking on the palms of the hands after having experienced scarlet fever
Gonococcal urethritis with purulent fluorine
Extragenital manifestations of gonorrhea
Oligoarthritis associated with a gonococcal infection
Gonoblennorrhea (purulent conjunctivitis) in the newborn
Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome. Severe necrotizing skin lesions in meningococcal sepsis, meningococcal sepsis, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, meningococcal sepsis.
Fever course in typhoid or paratyphoid fever
a Typhoid roseoles. b Maculopapular rash in typhoid.
Erythema nodosum after Yersinia enterocolitis
Routes of transmission of Yersinia pestis
Different causes of enteritis
Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa
Individual mycobacteria in the sputum
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Absorption into the lungs via droplet infection, equilibrium formation or primary tuberculosis; Transition to latency with persistent mycobacteria in a productive granuloma; exogenous reinfection or endogenous reactivation via weakening of the cellular immune response: active (post-primary) tuberculosis; Transmission of infection through coughed up mycobacteria.
Schematic representation of the course of primary tuberculosis
Miliary tuberculosis of the lungs
Tuberculoma with Langhans giant cells and numerous epithelial cells. Lymphocytic infiltrates can be found in the edge area.
Development of tubercular meningitis
Positive intracutaneous test for the detection of tuberculosis
[L157 / M451]
Diagnosis and therapy of tuberculosis. INH = isoniazid, RMP = rifampicin, PZA = pyrazinamide.
a Tuberculoid Leprosy Tuberculoid Leprosy. b Lepromatous leprosy.
Ulcus durum (hard chancre) in syphilis
[a: R132; b, c: E664]
Hair loss in syphilis ("like moth-eaten")
Condylomata lata in syphilis
Condylomata acuminata due to human papillomavirus (HPV)
Saber scabbard tibia in Lues connata
Hutchinson teeth Hutchinson teeth ("as wide as long") in Lues connata
Way of transmission of Lyme disease
Erythema chronicum migrans after a tick bite
Stage II symptoms of Lyme disease
Lymphadenosis cutis benigna in Lyme disease
Lyme arthritis in the left knee joint
Routes of transmission of relapsing fever
Fever course in relapsing fever
Two-phase fever with assignment of the affected organs in Weil's disease
Chlamydia life cycleChlamydia life cycle. EB = elementary body, RB = initial body (reticulate body).
Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes
Chlamydia trachomatis and blindness. a Outline of the pathogenesis. b Scarring of the cornea causes a long-lasting trachoma grain to form in the eye.
The most common form of neonatal conjunctivitis is chlamydial infection, chlamydial neonatal conjunctivitis, neonatal conjunctivitis, chlamydia.
Inflammatory thickened inguinal lymph nodes in lymphogranuloma venereum
Ornithosis (interstitial pneumonia)
Pathogenesis of Rickettsial Infections
Petechial bleeding in typhus
Blackish necrotic ulcer in skin anthrax
Conjunctival bleeding in pertussis
Legionella in a lung biopsy
Routes of transmission of brucellosis
Wound dressing for infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the typical blue-green pus
Ulcus molle with multiple ulcers
Importance of Bacterial Infections for Exam and Practice
|Bacterial species||Particularly relevant to the exam||Relevant to the exam||Practically relevant|
|Staphylococci (Section 1.1)||Abscesses, mixed infections, MRSA||Food poisoning||Colitis|
|Streptococci (Section 1.2)||Carditis|
|Enterococci (Section 1.3)|
|Neisseries (Section 1.4)|
|Corynebacteria (Section 1.5)||diphtheria||Erythrasma|
|Enterobacteria (Section 1.6)||Typhus abdominalis|
|Vibrionen (chapter 1.7)||cholera|
|Campylobacter (Section 1.8)||Enterocolitis|
|Helicobacter (Section 1.8)|
|Clostridia (Section 1.9)|
|Mycobacteria (Section 1.10)||tuberculosis||leprosy|
|Spirochetes (Chapter 1.11)|
|Chlamydia (Chapter 1.12)||urogenital infections (including adnexitis)|
|Rickettsia (Chapter 1.13)|
|Bacilli (Chapter 1.14)||anthrax|
|Bordetellen (Chapter 1.15)||whooping cough|
|Legionella (Section 1.16)||Legionnaires' disease||Pontiac fever|
|Brucellen (Chapter 1.17)|
|Listeria (Chapter 1.18)||Listeriosis|
|Francisellen (Chapter 1.19)||Tularemia|
|Pseudomonads (Section 1.20)||nosocomial infections||snot|
|Haemophilus (Chapter 1.21)||Epiglottitis||meningitis||Ulcer molle|
Differential Diagnosis 4
Notification requirement 5
Multi-resistant germs 5
Non-A streptococcal disease 9
Streptococcal A disease 10
Physiological enterobacteria 22
Obligatory pathogenic coliform bacteria22
Campylobacter and Helicobacter34
Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli34
Syphilis (Lues) 52
Relapsing Fever 61
Diseases caused by Chlamydia trachomatis65
Diseases caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae68
Chlamydia psittaci diseases: ornithosis69
Q fever 70
Pontiac Fever 78
Bang's disease and Malta fever (Mediterranean fever) 79
Infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa82
Haemophilus Bacteria 83
In 2001, several laws were passed through the Disease Law Reform ActRenewed Disease Law Replaced. The essential one, especially for doctors and alternative practitioners article 1 this law bears the name Infection Protection Act (IfSG). In the meantime, several smaller additions have been made, in 2013 even several with significant effects.
The IfSG (Chapter 5) not only lists in detail the various reporting obligations, but also the persons and institutions affected by them, but also deals with prevention (vaccinations) and the fight against communicable diseases and (as is generally the case) with criminal offenses - and regulations on fines. It is still the case that a good knowledge of the various laws, especially the IfSG, is essential with regard to the alternative practitioner examination.
With regard to the reporting requirements for infectious diseases, it is important to note that "Reporting obligation according to § 6" means that the disease in question is already with Suspicion, also at illness and death of the patient is to be reported to the health department, and that this obligation is also unrestricted for the Naturopath applies. Against means "Reporting obligation according to § 7"that the disease only occurs when proof of the pathogen or its antibodies and at death of the patient is to be reported. In these cases, however, the obligation to notify does not apply to the doctor or alternative practitioner, but to the Laboratory doctor or Pathologistwho has provided evidence. Section 7 is only relevant for the alternative practitioner insofar as the diseases listed therein are to be considered relevant to the examination in principle and at the same time under the Treatment ban fall.
With regard to the Infectious disease therapy one can formulate in a general way that almost every illness can be treated by the naturopath that Not after the Sections 6 and 7 must be reported is the not mentioned in § 34 will and that eventually not one of the sexually transmitted diseases belongs. This is formulated in § 24. In addition, the alternative practitioner is restricted to a lesser extent by other laws, e.g. with regard to oral infections affecting the oral cavity or infections in the puerperium.
The one specified for the individual diseases Contagion indexInfectious diseases contagion index contagion index, infectious diseases indicates the likelihood of pathogen transmission through contact with an infected person. 1.0 stands for a transmission probability of 100%; with a contagion index of 0.25, infection occurs only in every 4th contact. In contrast, denotes the Manifestation indexInfectious diseases manifestation index Manifestation index, infectious diseases the relative proportion of those who, in the context of an infection, then actually became visible (apparent) visible (apparent) get sick. If these values are not specified in the following, they are not known or cannot be precisely defined.
Diseases caused by fungi, worms and parasites are discussed (apart from malaria) in the subject of microbiology.
In Table 1.1, bacterial infections, infectious diseases, and bacterial bacterial infectious diseases are classified according to their relevance to exams and practice.
The infection mostly occurs healthy germ carriers by Droplet or smear infection (e.g. towels): At least every 4th adult harbors the germ in the nasopharynx - with a focus on the Vestibulum nasi.
Abscess, Boils and Carbuncles (Dermatology)
Impetigo contagiosa (specialist in dermatology)
Puerperal mastitis (specialist gynecology)
Osteomyelitis (musculoskeletal system)
Sinusitis and otitis media (breathing compartment)
Endocarditis (cardiovascular system)
Pneumonia, meningitis or encephalitis especially in infants
Lyell syndrome or SSSS (staphylococcal scalded skin ssyndrome of scalded skin) syndrome of scalded skin Infants by Staphylococcus aureusToxins (Department of Dermatology) Lyell's Syndrome SSSS s. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndromestaphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS)
In addition to its environmental resistance and ubiquitous distribution, a further problem with S. aureus is that even extensive, difficult-to-progress infections no immunity leave. As a result, relapses are virtually unlimited.
Essentially, the hygiene problem is widely discussed in German clinics, medical committees and the Federal Ministry of Health, but nothing decisive has happened so far. The result of many years of extensive discussions could perhaps be summarized as follows: “The mountain gave birth and gave birth to a mouse.” In any case, compared to what has been advanced and achieved in neighboring countries, what is happening in Germany can only be seen as embarrassing describe. This is detailed below.
your resistance across from Disinfectants or
caused by them Clinical pictures
in Clinics and other facilities such as retirement homes relative high, but they are also in the usual population represented to a certain (small) proportion.
Even in Animal kingdom they can be found, which is not surprising in view of the antibiotic treatments (see below).
Staphylococci are next to enteritis salmonella most common causes triggered by bacterial toxins Food poisoning. It should be noted that staphylococci, in particular, are basically foodIntoxications and Not around Infections acts, which is why e.g. Antibiotics useless are.
Antibiotic-associated colitis due to Clostridium difficile
Caregivers who care for patients who have been found or suspected of having clostridia should therefore keep their hands up in connection to the obligatory disinfection also to wash thoroughly because Spurs only mechanically can be removed from the skin.
There are several reasons why under a Antibiotic therapy also beyond staphylococci and clostridia Diarrhea Diarrhea after antibiotic therapy:
For one, some have antibiotics own effects on the intestinal wall. For example, erythromycin stimulates the motilin receptors; Amoxicillin also speeds up intestinal transit, while neomycin even causes inflammation.
On the other hand, the Displacement of physiological bacteria to an overgrowth with pathogenic germs (so-called. Dysbiosis), Dysbiosis, after antibiotic therapy, enteritis, after antibiotic therapy, not just directly to one Enteritis but also inadequate the usual metabolism of fiber, so that a osmotic diarrhea arises. The dysbiosis of the intestine can usually be treated without problems. Diarrhea osmotic (digestive system).
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