Creed that Holds the Rain Piano

11th grade


Industrialization generally refers to the introduction and spread of industrial-mechanical forms of production and distribution of goods and services, with the consequence of a dwindling share of agricultural production in favor of manufacturing in an economy. Industrialization began in England during the second half of the 18th century. Later it gradually spread to other countries in Europe and North America, and since the middle of the 20th century increasingly also in Asia and Latin America.

If you follow Jean Fourastié's division into sectors:

"Primary sector" of raw material extraction (agriculture, animal husbandry, extraction of mineral resources)
"Secondary Sector" of Processing
"Tertiary Sector" of Services
"Quaternary Sector" of the leisure industry
“Quintary sector” of waste management

industrialization processes have emerged everywhere, starting from the secondary sector.
England as the motherland of industrialization
See also: Industrial Revolution and History of Production Technology

In England, absolutism and manorial rule had been relaxed earlier than in other European countries; in contrast to German countries, there was no longer any compulsory guilds. This favored the free expansion of trade, capital formation and technical innovation. The island location of England made supra-regional traffic and the transport of goods by sea between port cities possible. [3] Milestones were the invention of the steam engine (1712 by Thomas Newcomen, decisive further development in 1769 by James Watt), the spinning machine (Spinning Jenny), the mechanical loom, the machine tool and the puddling process in iron extraction. The invention of the steam locomotive and the first public railways marked the end of the (first) industrial revolution in England.
Favoring factors

Capital formation economy
Infrastructure: In England, the importance of using waterways (canal construction) and railways was recognized earlier than in other countries. As a result, and because of its island position, England had a well-developed network of canals earlier than any other country.
Sufficient raw material deposits, especially ore, coal and cotton from the colonies. In addition, there was the favorable location of raw material deposits in Germany, which were close enough to each other to be able to use them efficiently together.
Sufficient supply of labor. The economic situation of small farmers became more difficult; many of them moved to the developing industrial centers.
Sales markets due to growing demand for textiles (clothing)
Suppression of economic competition in its position as a world and colonial power, such as the Indian cotton industry.
Large merchant and war fleet that was used to ship goods and raw materials and serve the interests of sea power
Compared to autocracies, greater power of the bourgeoisie in the constitutional monarchy.
Greater political stability than in other countries, e.g. B. The Bill of Rights of 1689 was in place
Powerful agriculture to supply the rapidly growing population and as a capital base
In addition, the Calvinist religion encouraged many people to continue to strive to work and get rich if possible.

Meaning today

Industrialization is also used as a term for today's standardization / automation of procedures / processes. Software development is an example: In programming, no object is manufactured in the traditional sense. The production of the software product can be seen as a manual activity in many companies, as it is carried out differently and individually each time. The aim of industrialization is to standardize common manufacturing elements so that they can be used more effectively, productively and uniformly. Only when the individual phases have been characterized can parts, for example, be handed in as offshoring activities.

An industrial criticism was expressed early on during industrialization, which later turned into an ecological criticism.

The effects following industrialization can be seen as urbanization, the change from a self-sufficient economy (subsistence economy) to an external supply society, declining birth rates, prosperity (in industrialized nations), but also increasing democratization, which was dependent on growing prosperity. [4] name increasing pollution and in particular global warming.